2015年12月15日 星期二

et cetera, et al., et alii, elsewhere



Quote:
"The best thing about space travel is that it made it possible to go elsewhere."Robert A. Heinlein



et al.
Show phonetics
SPECIALIZED ABBREVIATION FOR et alia: and others.
It is used in formal writing to avoid a long list of names of people who have written something together:
The method is described in an article by Feynman et al.




et alia およびその他の物; et alibi およびその他の場所で; et alii およびその他.
In some situations, an ellipsis ("…") can be a substitute for ", et cetera." when it is used at the end of a sentence, as in:
We need a lot of fruit: apples, bananas, oranges...

In lists of persons, et al. is used in place of etc. (an abbreviation of et alii, meaning "and others"). Less common is the use of et al. in lists of places (where it abbreviates et alibi, meaning "and elsewhere".)


elsewhereadv.
In or to a different or another place: has property at the shore and elsewhere.



et cetera
adv. - 等等
日本語 (Japanese) n. - 種々のもの, がらくた


Wikipedia
Et cetera is a Latin expression that means "and other things", or "and so on". It is taken directly from the Latin expression which literally means "and the rest (of such things)." Et means "and"; cetera (plural of ceterum/caeterum) means "the rest."

It is also sometimes spelled et caetera or et cætera, and is often abbreviated to etc. Archaic abbreviations, most commonly used in legislation, notations for mathematics or qualifications, include &/c., &c., and &ca..

The phrase et cetera is often used to represent the logical continuation of some sort of series of descriptions. For example, in the following expression...

We will need a lot of fruit: apples, bananas, oranges, etc.

... the 'etc.' stands for 'and other types of fruit'. It is an error to say or write "and etc.," in which the word "and" would be redundant. This would translate as "and and the rest".

Typically, the abbreviated versions should always be followed by a full stop (period), and it is customary—even in British English where the serial comma is typically not used—that "etc." always be preceded by a comma. Thus:

A, B, C, etc.
not:
A, B, C etc
It should be noted however that some publishing house styles (particularly in Britain) no longer require either the preceding comma or the following stop. In general, writers are advised to use the traditional style unless circumstances dictate otherwise.

In some situations, an ellipsis ("…") can be a substitute for ", et cetera." when it is used at the end of a sentence, as in:
We need a lot of fruit: apples, bananas, oranges...
In lists of persons, et al. is used in place of etc. (an abbreviation of et alii, meaning "and others"). Less common is the use of et al. in lists of places (where it abbreviates et alibi, meaning "and elsewhere".)
A common misspelling of the abbreviation is "ect."; a common mispronunciation is "ex cetera."

See also
List of Latin phrases
Ellipses (…) may be used for a similar function.
Inter caetera ("Among other [works]"), a papal bull.


作者:曾泰元 2015-12-15 世界公民文化中心
調整字體尺寸

英文詞彙是個民族的大熔爐,除了英文固有的本族詞彙之外,還廣泛、大規模地向歐洲諸語言借詞,如拉丁文、希臘文、法文、義大利文、西班牙文等等。15世紀的殖民主義興起之後,英文跟全世界大部分地區的語言有了接觸,從而又把更多樣的詞彙陸續帶入英文,進而成為英文的一員。英文詞彙的多樣性,堪稱世界第一;英文詞彙的數量,恐怕也是世界第一。



根據學者的分析統計,英文裡的外來語約佔七成五,比例之高,在主要的語言裡只有日文差可比擬。在七成五的外來語當中,拉丁文和法文更是重中之重,構成了特具文化深度的詞彙,其地位有如日文裡的中文借詞。

拉丁文之於歐洲,就如同文言文之於中國。由今觀之,拉丁文看似遙不可及,然而在英文裡卻是足跡遍布。我們以為文言文是中國古人的專利,然而現代漢語卻也俯拾皆是。這一期,我們就先來看看英文裡一些基礎的拉丁文詞彙。

首先是一些常見的縮寫,相信讀者多半不會感到陌生:

AD 公元【anno Domini的縮寫,字面義為in the year of the Lord「在主的紀元」】

AM 上午【ante meridiem的縮寫,字面義為before noon「午前」】

PM 下午【post meridiem的縮寫,字面義為after noon「午後」】

e.g. 例如【exempli gratia的縮寫,字面義為for (the sake of) example「為了例子之故」】

etc. 等等【et cetera的縮寫,字面義為and the rest「以及其他的」】

i.e. 亦即【id est的縮寫,字面義為that is「也就是」】





CV 履歷【curriculum vitae的縮寫,字面義為course of life「人生的歷程」】

vs. 對(用於比賽或訴訟)【versus的縮寫,字面義為「轉而面對」】

其次是一些能掛在嘴邊的一般用語,同時又能彰顯自己的英文深度:

alma mater 母校【字面義為nourishing mother「哺育的母親」】

bona fide 真正的【字面義為in good faith「信心良好」】

per se 本身;本質上【字面義為by itself「自己本身」】

per capita 每人的【字面義為by heads「算人頭」】

status quo 現狀【字面義為state in which「所處的狀態」】

vice versa 反之亦然【字面義為position turned「位置翻轉」】

viva voce 口頭的;(英)口試(或簡稱為viva)【字面義為with the living voice「用活生生的聲音」】

vox pop 路邊民調【縮略自vox populi,字面義為voice of the people「人民的聲音」】

接下來是有些難度、比較文言的字眼,是受過良好人文教育的常用詞彙:

ad hoc 特別的;臨時的【字面義為to this「為此」】

carpe diem 活在當下;及時行樂【字面義為seize the day「抓住這一天」】

modus operandi 作法;行事風格【字面義為way of operating「操作的方法」】

non sequitur 毫無邏輯關係的陳述【字面義為it does not follow「推論無法得出」】

persona non grata 不受歡迎人物【字面義為person not acceptable「無法被接受的人」】

prima facie 初步的;初步看來【字面義為at first sight「第一眼」】

pro forma 形式上的【字面義為for (the sake of) form「為了形式之故」】

quid pro quo 交換物;作為交換【字面義為something for something「一物換一物」】

最後是比較專業的字眼,許多是法律術語:

corpus delicti 犯罪事證【字面義為body of crime「犯罪的本體」】

de jure 法理上【字面義為from law「由法律看來」】

in flagrante delicto 就在作案時;現行犯;捉姦在床【字面義為in blazing crime「犯罪之火正熊熊燃燒時」,原片語亦可簡稱為in flagrante或flagrante delicto,捉姦在床的意思更為常用】

non compos mentis 心神喪失【字面義為not of sound mind「心智不健全」】

postmortem 驗屍;事後檢討【字面義為after death「死後」】

pro bono (法律服務)免費的【縮略自pro bono publico,字面義為for the public good「為了公眾利益」】

sine qua non 必要條件;先決條件【字面義為without which not「沒有就不行」】

subpoena 傳票【字面義為under penalty「會受到處罰」】

以上的這些詞彙真的是英文嗎?是的,不過我們可以這樣來理解,它們的血統是拉丁文,目前拿的是英文的護照,就像籃球明星林書豪是華人的血統,拿的是美國護照一樣。

這些詞彙難嗎?或許是的,然而這卻是讓自己英文更上層樓的門檻之一。我們說寫英文,總不能老停留在大白話的階段,適時穿插點拉丁文外來語,可以增加話語的深度與韻味。這就好比我們說寫中文時,偶爾加點書面語和文言文,便能讓閱聽對象知道我們的中文程度。

- See more at: http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5073234&utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=Social&utm_campaign=Daily#sthash.niNYFU7S.dpuf

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