2017年4月27日 星期四

punch-up, illiteracy, viciousness, chain reaction, vicious circle, punch-up, information divide

A real partisan punch-up, unprecedented in its viciousness, is what many voters seem to want from this election. The Democrats have picked the right woman to deliver it

bank runs

Worse yet, bank runs can be contagious. If depositors at one bank lose their money, depositors at other banks are likely to get nervous, too, setting off a chain reaction. And there can be wider economic effects: as the surviving banks try to raise cash by calling in loans, there can be a vicious circle in which bank runs cause a credit crunch, which leads to more business failures, which leads to more financial troubles at banks, and so on.


With new drugs continuing to emerge, doping tests have fallen into a vicious circle. Now we even have such a thing as "gene doping," involving the manipulation of genes. Every cell in the human body seems to have become a potential tool for cheating in sports.

World in Progress | 08.09.2008 | 04:30

UNESCO promotes efforts to reduce Illiteracy

More than 774 Million people across the world cannot read or write. But globalization and quickly changing media make access to information crucial for all people

Illiterate people are excluded from many aspects of society. They are often caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and lack access to basic education. Raising literacy levels enhance people's chances in life as well as impacting on development and health of their nations.
International Efforts on teaching adults focus on countries with high illiteracy rates or more than 10 million illiterate citizens, including nations like India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Chad as well as China, Brazil or the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Promoting Lifelong Learning
The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning in Hamburg, Germany, promotes and co-ordinates international efforts to increase literacy levels. Ulrike Hanemann, senior expert at the Institute, told World in Progress that it's more crucial than ever to bridge the increasing information divide between cities and rural areas by giving all people - both adults and children - an education.


punch-up 
Pronunciation: /ˈpʌntʃʌp/
NOUN
British informal
A disorderly bout of fighting with the fists; a brawl:
Casey and his mother’s lover are to appear in court after a punch-up
figurative there could be a few punch-ups with Britain’s farmers



viciousness 

Pronunciation: /ˈvɪʃəsnəs/ 

NOUN



[MASS NOUN]
1Deliberate cruelty or violence:she was visibly shocked by the viciousness of the attack
1.1Aggressiveangry behaviour:they reveal a stupidity and viciousness when arguing

vicious circle noun [S]
a continuing unpleasant situation, created when one problem causes another problem which then makes the first problem worse:
Many people get caught/trapped in a vicious circle of dieting and weight gain.

 il・lit・er・ate



  
━━ a., n. 読み書きできない(人), 無学の(人).
 il・lit・er・a・cy
 ━━ n.

divide Show phonetics
noun [C]
a difference or separation:
Because of debt repayments, the divide between rich and poor countries is continuing to grow.




chain reaction noun [C]連鎖反應
a set of related events in which each event causes the next one, or a chemical reaction in which each change causes another:
The war risked setting off a perilous chain reaction that would endanger the whole world.vicious circle noun [S]惡性循環
a continuing unpleasant situation, created when one problem causes another problem which then makes the first problem worse:
Many people get caught/trapped in a vicious circle of dieting and weight gain.

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