2016年7月19日 星期二

meritocracy, underworld, organized crime, merits

"In Britain they have an “establishment”; but what we have in America are talented people who deserve to be on top. One wonders what kind of a shock it will take to shake us out of this meritocratic complacency once and for all."

Opinion: Donald Trump is the president white America wants. It is hard to believe it would be on merit.

Ignored by both Democrats and Republicans, blue-collar whites have fallen into depression

In 2011 a Belgian photographer was allowed entry into one of Japan’s Yakuza families. Over two years, he captured the lives of those living in the underworld

More than ever before, America’s elite is producing children who not only get ahead, but deserve to do so: they meet the standards of meritocracy better than their peers, and are thus worthy of the status they inherit. That’s a problem http://econ.st/1CjuEYH

Even poor kids who do everything right don't do much better than rich kids who do everything wrong. Advantages and disadvantages, in other words, tend to perpetuate themselves. You can see that in the above chart, based on a new paper from Richard Reeves and Isabel Sawhill, presented at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston's annual conference, which is underway.
Specifically, rich high school dropouts remain in the top about as much as poor college grads stay stuck in the bottom — 14 versus 16 percent, respectively. Not only that, but these low-income strivers are just as likely to end up in the bottom as these wealthy ne'er-do-wells. Some meritocracy.

Peter Jackson's grand imaginings have blinded him to the merits of a simpler story


Line breaks: mer¦it|oc¦racy
Pronunciation: /ˌmɛrɪˈtɒkrəsi /

NOUN (plural meritocracies)

1Government or the holding of power by people selected according to merit:progress towards meritocracy was slow
1.1[COUNT NOUN] A society governed by people selected according to merit:Britain is a meritocracy, and everyone with skilland imagination may aspire to reach the highest level
1.2[COUNT NOUN]  A ruling or influential class of educated or able people:the relentless advance of the meritocracy




Pronunciation: /-təˈkratɪk/ ADJECTIVE

[名][U]実力[能力]主義;[C]実力[能力]社会,学力社会;((the ~))((集合的;単数・複数扱い))((主に英))実力者層,知的エリート階級.


[名]((the 〜))

1 下層[どん底]社会;悪[やくざ]の世界, 暗黒街, 裏街道.
2 地下, 海中.
3 対蹠(しょ)地.
4 ((文))あの世, 下界, よみの国.

organized crime
  1. Widespread criminal activities, such as prostitution, interstate theft, or illegal gambling, that occur within a centrally controlled formal structure.
  2. The people and the groups involved in such criminal activities.

Merit Times

(mĕr'ĭt) pronunciation
    1. Superior quality or worth; excellence: a proposal of some merit; an ill-advised plan without merit.
    2. A quality deserving praise or approval; virtue: a store having the merit of being open late.
  1. Demonstrated ability or achievement: promotions based on merit alone.
  2. An aspect of character or behavior deserving approval or disapproval. Often used in the plural: judging people according to their merits.
  3. Christianity. Spiritual credit granted for good works.

merit :功勞;功德;功績:行善者應得報酬之名分;神學上通常分為兩種: (1) 義理功勞 merit de condigno ,指狹義的功勞,即功勞與報酬旗鼓相當,譬如做多少工,就給多少工資。 (2) 情誼功勞 merit de congruo ,指廣義的功勞,即功勞與酬報並不完全相稱,靠付款者(賞報者)慈悲或承諾,譬如發給員工獎金多寡不一。

  1. merits
    1. Law. A party's strict legal rights, excluding jurisdictional, personal, or technical aspects.
    2. The factual content of a matter, apart from emotional, contextual, or formal considerations.

v., -it·ed, -it·ing, -its. v.tr.
To earn; deserve. See synonyms at earn1.

To be worthy or deserving: Pupils are rewarded or corrected, as they merit.

[Middle English, from Old French merite, reward or punishment, from Latin meritum, from neuter past participle of merēre, to deserve.]
meritless mer'it·less adj.

meritorious works :善功;善工。

1 [U][C]賞賛すべきもの[行為];功績, 手柄;長所;((〜s))長短, 善悪
merits and demerits
長所と短所, 功罪
have the merit of ...
There is nolittle] merit in doing
The plan is (entirely) without merit.
Both views have some merit.
That's the merit of experience.
Patience is one of her merits.
2 [U]((形式))(賞賛に値する)優秀さ;価値
a man of merit
3 (学校で)賞点.
4 ((しばしば〜s))真価;当然の報酬[評価, 罰], 功罪
You should deal with people according to their merits.
5 [U][C]《神学》功徳(くどく).
6 ((〜s))《法律》(訴訟の)本案, 事柄本来の理非.
make a merit of .../take merit to oneself for ...
…を誇る, 手柄にする.
on its [a person's] merits
merit attentionhonor, punishment
注目[名誉, 罰]に値する
The program merits scrutiny.
That project merits carrying out.

1 利点。価値。「何の―もない」「―が大きい」⇔デメリット。 2 手柄。功績。
メリット‐システム【merit system】