2016年7月3日 星期日

atrium, patent, patently, letters patent, go off-patent, arterial, patent foramen ovale (PFO)/Atrial septal defect (ASD) /Migraine heart link

Q. Will you participate in Occupy Central?
A. My sincere hope is that there will be no need for Occupy Central. I will say this: If, at the end of the day, the S.A.R. government and Beijing force the people of Hong Kong to accept a set of universal suffrage proposals that are patently false, where there is 100 percent certainty for mainland China as to who is going to be elected, then Beijing cannot blame the Hong Kong people if there is mass mobilization.

New weapons are emerging in the war on cancer. That is good news not just for patients but also for drug companies. The biggest ones, faced with falling sales as their existing medicines go off-patent, are investing in smaller firms with promising cancer treatments under development, hoping to secure the next blockbuster http://econ.st/15B6gl4
時代的技術易於失傳又沒有切磋改進的激盪。「當技術失傳了那世界可能要再等500 年,

在大家只看到這個「利」,「patent 的翻譯翻得很差,剛好倒因為果,將它定位在賺錢,專
皆不斷以「專利數」做為科技或技術實力的表徵,盧志遠表示,「其實只能說 『多』不會
《中英對照讀新聞》Migraine heart link in children 孩童偏頭痛與心臟的關係
Children who see flashing lights during a migraine have twice the normal likelihood of having a hole-in-the-heart, a study suggests. US doctors examined 109 children over six who were migraine sufferers. About half of those with a type of migraine accompanied by a visual disturbance called an aura had the heart defect, the Journal of Pediatrics reports.
The British Heart Foundation called for further research into the link. Amy Thompson, senior cardiac nurse at the British Heart Foundation, said: "There could be a number of explanations for this link so further research needs to be carried out before we draw any firm conclusions.
A number of medical studies have found a link in adults between a hole-in-the-heart - known technically as a patent foramen ovale (PFO) - and migraine with aura. This has lead to attempts to treat migraine by surgery to close the hole, when other migraine therapies have failed.
許多醫學研究已發現成年人心臟破洞——技術上的名詞是「心臟卵圓孔未閉合」(patent foramen ovale, PFO)——與偏頭痛時看見光環的關聯,這也因此促成在其他偏頭痛療法失敗時,以手術來閉合心臟破洞以治療偏頭痛的嘗試。
Dr Rachel McCandless and colleagues of the University of Utah used a scanning technique known as an echocardiogram to look for the heart defect. Of the children who had migraines with aura, 50% also had the defect. This is nearly double the rate seen in the general population.
sufferer:名詞,受害者,病患。例句:A new drug may give new hope to thousands of hay-fever sufferers.(新藥或許可為數千名花粉症患者帶來新希望。)
carry out:片語,實行,進行。Our soldiers carried out a successful attack last night.(我們的士兵昨晚成功完成了攻擊。)
draw a conclusion:片語,下結論。例句:I’d seen them together so often I drew the logical conclusion that they were husband and wife.(我常看他們倆在一起,所以我下了個合乎邏輯的結論:他們是夫婦。)


Line breaks: pa|tent¦ly
Pronunciation: /ˈpeɪt(ə)ntli/


  • Clearly; without doubt:these claims were patently falsethe Government’s approach had patently failed to address the problem

More definitions o


Line breaks: pa¦tent
Pronunciation: /ˈpat(ə)nt, ˈpeɪt(ə)nt

  • A government authority or licence conferring a right or title for a set period, especially the sole right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention: he took out a patent for an improved steam hammer


    2 Medicine (Of a vessel, duct, or aperture) open and unobstructed; failing to close: the patient is usually left with a patent vessel 1 /ˈpeɪt(ə)nt/ Easily recognizable; obvious: she was smiling with patent insincerity
  • 2.1(Of a parasitic infection) showing detectable parasites in the tissues or faeces: there are a few recorded cases of patent infection in man


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late Middle English: from Old French, from Latin patent- 'lying open', from the verb patere. The noun sense is from letters patent.

letters patent

Line breaks: let|ters pa¦tent



late Middle English: from medieval Latin litterae patentes, literally 'letters lying open'.
Atrial septal defect
Classification and external resources

Heart of human embryo of about thirty-five days
ICD-10 Q21.1
ICD-9 745.5-745.6
OMIM 108800
DiseasesDB 1089
eMedicine med/3519
MeSH C14.240.400.560.375
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a form of congenital heart defect that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum. The interatrial septum is the tissue that divides the right and left atria. Without this septum, or if there is a defect in this septum, it is possible for blood to travel from the left side of the heart to the right side of the heart, or vice versa.[1] This results in the mixing of arterial and venous blood, which may or may not be clinically significant. This mixture of blood may or may not result in what is known as a "shunt". The amount of shunting present, if any, dictates hemodynamic significance (see Pathophysiology below). A "right-to-left-shunt" typically poses the more dangerous scenario (see Pathophysiology below).
The right side of the heart contains venous blood with a low oxygen content, and the left side of the heart contains arterial blood with a high oxygen content. A normal heart has an interatrial septum that prevents oxygen-rich blood and oxygen-deficient blood from mixing together.
During development of the fetus, the interatrial septum develops to separate the left and right atrium. However, the foramen ovale (pronounced /fɒˈreɪmən oʊˈvɑːliː/) allows blood from the right atrium to the left atrium during fetal development. This opening allows blood to bypass the nonfunctional fetal lungs when the fetus obtains its oxygen from the placenta. A layer of tissue called the septum primum acts as a valve over the foramen ovale during fetal development. After birth, the pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system drops, thus causing the foramen ovale to close entirely. In approximately 25% of adults,[2] the foramen ovale does not entirely seal.[3] In this case, elevation of pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system (i.e.: pulmonary hypertension due to various causes, or transiently during a cough) can cause the foramen ovale to remain open. This is known as a patent foramen ovale (PFO).