2016年7月19日 星期二

catch, upshot, Catch-22, emerge


VentureBeat

Google Wireless Plan Has One Catch
Google Inc. 's planned wireless service may launch by the end of March, but it will work only on the company's latest Nexus brand smartphone and not ...

"The upshot there being, I am a terrible employee."



The comedian seemingly fought off tears while delivering his announcement.
WASHINGTONPOST.COM




When I emerged from the U.S. Navy in 1946, having been narrowly saved by The Bomb from being obliged to invade Japan, the great boom in American higher education was just getting underway, and I have ridden the wave all the way through, crest after crest, until today, when it seems at last, like me, to be finally subsiding. I was twenty.



While he acknowledged the public reasons put forward by Apple, there was more to it--not surprisingly--than that. The upshot: Apple wanted better pricing, according to this person.
Apple was paying a premium for IBM silicon, he said, creating a Catch-22. IBM had to charge more because it didn't have the economies of scale of Intel, but Apple didn't want to pay more, even though it supposedly derived more from an inherently superior RISC design as manifested in the PowerPC architecture.



Though Treasury officials have reviewed multiple plans for intervention for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, they haven't identified triggers for a government bailout, nor have they indicated when a rescue might occur or what form it might take. As a result, investors like private equity firms are staying away, The New York Times reported.

"We're in a Catch 22," The Times cited an executive with one of the mortgage firms as saying. "As long as there is uncertainty over Treasury's plan, we can't raise money, and as long as we can't raise money, there's going to be more and more speculation about Treasury's plan."

Go to Article from The New York Times»



Catch-22 Show phonetics
noun [S or U] 美國小說 "第22條軍規"Joseph Heller - referring of course to his best-known work Catch-22.
an impossible situation where you are prevented from doing one thing until you have done another thing, but you cannot do the other thing until you have done the first thing:
a Catch-22 situation

catch
A hidden problem or disadvantage in an apparentlyideal situation:there’s a catch in it somewhereOne-hit wonder 在WSJ等經常出現
形容某公司產品線只有某一名牌的銷路是好 的
如下兩例

Heard on the Street: Motorola needs to prove that the RAZR isn't just a one-hit wonder before its shares can break through the ceiling holding down cellphone-equipment makers.
Crocs Looks to Avoid Being One-Hit Wonder
Crocs saw its sales rocket in 2006 on the popularity of its colorful clogs. Now, the company is trying to avoid fad status with a new fashion line, but many on Wall Street aren't convinced Crocs can continue at its torrid pace.



這One-hit wonder在某英國的"每周一詞" 曾作娛樂界和運動界方面的溯源:
Meaning
A performer or act, usually a singer or band, who has just one popular success.
Origin
'One-hit wonder' is directed at popular musicians, although it is also sometimes used to describe others who are popularly known for a single sucess (unfairly or otherwise). For example, Joseph Heller - referring of course to his best-known work Catch-22. The term is used in various sports too, notably boxing. The meaning there is slightly different from other fields of endeavour. A boxing 'one-hit wonder' is someone who is not considered especially skillful, but relies on single knockout punches to win matches.
In the popular music sense, the term isn't as easy to define as it might seem. Several artists who had several hits in one country might have had just one elsewhere. For example, Frankie Goes To Hollywood is considered a one-hit wonder in the USA, but not in the UK. Also, some artists might be technically one-hit wonders but aren't usually listed as so as they had hits with other bands or under other names - for example, Derek and the Dominoes, Limahl/Kajagoogoo.
this term doesn't appear in print until surprisingly late. The earliest I can find is from the Winnipeg Free Press, in July 1977, in a piece about Abba:
"Instead of becoming what everyone expected [after winning the Eurovision Song Contest with Waterloo], a one-hit wonder, they soon had a string of hits behind them."
The use of the phrase there suggests that it was already known. It would certainly be ironic if the first use 'one-hit wonder' was in an article about Abba - one of the most successful groups in pop history.
There were many one-hit wonders in the 1950s and 1960s, although whether they were called that at the time seems in doubt.
The phrase was used long before 1977 in another context. In baseball a one-hit wonder is a pitcher who restricts the opposing team to a single base-hit by virtue of outstanding pitching. This goes back to at least 1914, as here from the New York newspaper The Middletown Daily Times-Press, July 1914 - in a piece entitled One-hit wonder fails to hold locals down:
"The Middies trimmed Newburgh by a score of 6 to 1, although Newburgh were aided and abetted by 'Let-er-go' Gallagher, their one hit pitcher."
Whoever coined the term 'one-hit wonder' in the musical sense might have plucked it out of the air. there's also the possibility that it was an ironic re-use of the earlier phrase - referring to relative failure rather than success. It could also have harked back to an much earlier phrase 'nine days' wonder', which has the same meaning, of something that is a flash in the pan.
In recent years, yet another 'one-hit wonder' has emerged. Anyone who has used Internet search engines will be familiar with searches yielding thousands or millions of hits. A search term that yields just one hit at Google is known as a Googlewhack.


*****

《紐約時報》「結語」專欄(The Upshot)對總統大選作出首輪預測:
至少目前看,希拉蕊·柯林頓有76%的幾率打敗唐納德·川普,成為美國新一任總統。


Of course, other security measures, such as explosive sniffers, can be employed, and often are. But the most reliable alternative to X-ray scanning, hand-searching everything, is slow and expensive. The upshot is that contraband is frequently smuggled in cargo and one day a bomb may be, too.

the upshot Show phonetics
noun [S]
something which happens as a result of other actions, events or decisions:
The upshot of the discussions is that there will be no redundancies.redundant (NOT EMPLOYED)

up・shot

━━ n. (the ~) 結果, 終局.





upshot 
Line breaks: up¦shot
Pronunciation: /ˈʌpʃɒt /

NOUN


[IN SINGULAR]
The final or eventual outcome or conclusion of a discussion, action, or series of events:the upshot of the meeting was that he was on the next plane to New York

emerge

Pronunciation: /ɪˈməːdʒ/



verb

[no object]
  • 1move out of or away from something and become visible:black ravens emerged from the fog
  • (of an insect or other invertebrate) break out from an egg, cocoon, or pupal case: the larvae pupate among the roots of trees to emerge as the adults
  • 2become apparent or prominent:United have emerged as the bookies' clear favourite (as adjective emerging)established and emerging artists
  • (of facts) become known:reports of a deadlock emerged during preliminary discussions [with clause]:it emerged that the PM and the Chancellor are still at loggerheads
  • 3recover from or survive a difficult situation:the economy has started to emerge from recession

Origin:

late 16th century (in the sense 'become known, come to light'): from Latin emergere, from e- (variant of ex-) 'out, forth' + mergere 'to dip'

emerge


音節
e • merge
発音
imə'ːrdʒ
レベル
最重要
emergeの変化形
emerging (現在分詞) • emerges (三人称単数現在)
[動](自)[I([副])]
1 (水中などから)浮かび上がる;〈見えなかったものが〉(…から)現れる((from, out of ...));(…に)現れる((into ...));〈ウイルスなどが〉発生する;〈制度などが〉出現する, 誕生する
emerge into a clearing in the forest
森の中の開拓地に出る
emerge in currency
一般に使われるようになる
The sun has emerged.
(今まで隠れていた)太陽が出た.
2 (…から)〈事実が〉明らかになる, 現れる((from ...));〈問題などが〉持ち上がる
It later emerged that ...
あとで…ということがわかった
A new problem emerged at the meeting.
会議で新しい問題が持ち上がった.
3 〈人が〉(苦境・逆境などから)身を起こす, 立ち上がる((from ...));(ある状態から)抜け出す((from ...))
emerge from poverty
貧困から身を起こす.
[ラテン語ēmergere(ē-外へ+mergereひたす=水中から外へ出る). △MERGE, SUBMERGE

《第22條軍規》(Catch-22)

小說Catch- 22首章中 ,連用 cavernous 3次,形容口 、眼、 頰
這對翻譯沒什麼挑戰 不過無法表達英文的特色
漢譯最大的敗筆在接下的一段 一系列醫生
各負責其專長,譬如說 psychologist for psyche 等等,這是要表示英文的形成法,而漢譯自作主張,每章可能都引用過第22條軍規。

Catch-22
http://www.answers.com/topic/catch-22
(kach twen-tee TOO)

noun
A situation marked by contradiction, absurdity, or paradox, where a solution is impossible to achieve.

Etymology
From Catch-22, a novel by Joseph Heller第22 條軍規

In this World War II novel, an air force regulation states that a man is to be considered insane if he is willing to continue to fly dangerous missions. To be relieved of such duties all he has to do is ask. But one who makes such a rational request shows that he is, in fact, sane. Here is an extract from the novel.
Doc Daneeka said, "He (Orr) has to be crazy to keep flying combat missions after all the close calls he's had. Sure I can ground Orr. But first he has to ask me to." "That's all he has to do to be grounded?" "That's all. Let him ask me." "And then you can ground him?" Yossarian asked. "No, then I can't ground him." "You mean there's a catch?" "Sure there is a catch," Doc Daneeka replied. "Catch-22. Anyone who wants to get out of combat duty isn't really crazy."
Usage
"Yet ask members of the public what they think about street sellers, and the most virtuous will respond that they should be banned from the city streets. Yet the sellers do a roaring trade, and could not do so unless their goods and services met a substantial public need. Some solution to this Catch 22 situation is long overdue ..." — Word From the Streets: The Plight of the Informal Sector; The National (Papua New Guinea); May 19, 2003.

"The players involved say it's too early to talk about it, which leads to a catch-22. If you wait until it becomes a pertinent issue, it may no longer even be an issue." — Tony Jackson; Reds Ponder Rare Slugging Trio; Sebastian Sun (Florida); May 21, 2003.
第22條軍規》(Catch-22)是美國作家約瑟夫·海勒(Joseph Heller)的代表作。作品是一部長篇小說,寫於1961年

目錄


[編輯] 情節梗概

故事發生在地中海的一個小島上,第二次世界大戰末期,美軍的一個飛行大隊駐紮在該島上。按一般規定,飛滿規定次數(最初為25次)的飛行員可以回國,但軍規實際上規定,無論何時,必須執行司令官命令做的事情。飛行大隊的指揮官凱斯卡上校(卡思卡特上校)是個官迷,他一次一次增加飛行任務,遠遠超出一般規定。飛行員們都得了恐懼症,變得瘋瘋癲癲。尤其是投彈手尤塞恩(尤 索林,約塞連)上尉,更是終日惶惶不可。在求生慾望的支配下,他在戰鬥中只想逃命。他裝病躲進醫院,不久被密探和一個充滿「愛國熱情」的傷兵嚇跑了。他找 到一個軍醫幫忙,想讓他證明自己瘋了。軍醫告訴他,雖然按照所謂的「第22條軍規」,瘋子可以免于飛行,但同時又規定必須由本人提出申請,而如果本人一旦 提出申請,便證明你並未變瘋,因為「對自身安全表示關注,乃是頭腦理性活動的結果」。這樣,這條表面講究人道的軍規就成了耍弄人的圈套。當飛行員們出生入死時,那些指揮官們卻忙於勾心鬥角,還和神通廣大的食堂伙食兵米洛組成了一家聯營公司M&M企業,大作投機生意,發戰爭財。尤塞恩目睹了這種種荒謬的現實,最後在同伴們的鼓勵下,他逃往中立國瑞典去了。

[編輯] 文學流派

這部小說是一個現代主義文學流派黑色幽默的代表作品。它比較集中的表現了黑色幽默流派的特點。該小說的作者也是公認的黑色幽默派的代表作家。

[編輯] 創作手法

作者在小說中摒棄了傳統的現實主義創作手法,使整個作品沒有一條完整的情節發展線索,也沒有突出的人物形象,充滿著混亂,喧鬧,瘋狂的氣氛。但作者同時強調的是一種「嚴肅的荒誕」。小說顯然以美軍來比喻整個美國社會,從它內部的骯髒,腐敗,墮落可以判斷出它的本質,尤其是那些高踞眾人之上的官僚們。所以,小說的特殊藝術形式和內容並非為了賣弄荒誕的技巧,而是為了更好的表達它的主題。正如哈里斯在《美國當代荒誕派小說家》(1971)一書中所指出的:「海勒的小說儘管技巧上有所創新,事實上卻在遵循特定的文學傳統。《第22條軍規》歸根到底是一部激進的抗議小說,像《憤怒的葡萄》和《美國的悲劇》一樣,他的抗議是指向美國的現行權力中心。」
作 者在不經意的調侃之中,顯露出銳利的諷刺鋒芒,直指荒誕的要害,初看忍俊不禁,細品餘味深長。作者常常將相互矛盾或褒貶義相對的詞彙與句子故意搭 配使用,如德里德爾將軍誇口:「我唯一的缺點就是沒有缺點」。丹尼卡醫生說:「救命可不是我的事」。某上校「發覺自己仍然無能,而感到十分自豪」,邁洛 說:「我這人從不說謊,只是在需要時才說謊」等等。

[編輯] 作品影響

[編輯] 作品本身

這部小說以其豐富的藝術內容,嚴肅的主題思想和荒誕不經的描寫手法贏得了人們的讚揚,成為60年代初美國文壇上一個重大突破。至1980年,光是科吉出版社就已經發行了150萬冊以上。出版者在扉頁上介紹說:「毫無疑問,《第22條軍規》是本世紀最傑出的小說創作。可以肯定,自從第二次世界大戰之後,還沒有別的小說像他那樣贏得如此熱烈的推崇」。
評論界高呼:「這是一部具有巨大藝術魅力的作品」,「這是輝煌之作」,「這是英語文學的偉大創舉」等等。

[編輯] 新名詞

這部小說的英文名字「Catch-22」已經進入英語詞典之中,成為常用的英語詞彙。它代表了統治者對於民眾的愚弄,也代表了民眾對於統治者的抨擊。
另外,這個詞在英語中也像徵人們處在一種荒謬的兩難之中。翻譯家黃文範把這種狀況翻譯為「坑人二十二」。如:一個人因為沒有工作經驗而不能得到一個工作,但是他又因為沒有一個工作而得不到工作經驗。

《第二十二條軍規》(Catch22)(1999/04)

“就第二十七空軍司令部來說,你只要飛四十次就行了。”
尤索林聽了十分高興。“這麼說我可以回國了,對嗎?我已經飛了四十八次。”
“不行,你不可以回國,”前一等兵溫特格林糾正他說。“你瘋了還是怎麼了?”
“為什麼不可以回國呢?”
“因為有第二十二條軍規。”
「如果你以為動力學中遊戲的名稱就是尋求微分工程解的表達式,那你的數學將只能研究規則性態。你會積極搜尋你的方法所適用的問題,而忽視其他問題。甚至不把它們掃到地毯下面去:要那樣的話,你至少必須承認它們的存在。你正在生活在愚人的樂園中,或者不管怎樣至少將會如此,假如你不是聰明過頭反倒成了愚人的話。

擺脫這種束縛需要很特殊的條件組合。時間、地點、人物、文化──所有這些都必須合適。」

Catch-22, a 1961 best-selling novel by Joseph Heller (1923–1999), set on a U.S. Air Force base in the Mediterranean during World War II. A work of comic genius, Catch-22 represented not just a satire of life in the military but also a serious protest against the uselessness of both rationality and sentimentality in the face of unbridled power in any form.
The story recounts the efforts of the protagonist, Captain Yossarian, to gain a discharge despite the insane regulations of the military bureaucracy. The concept named in the title—which refers to a situation in which intentionally self-contradictory rules preclude a desired outcome—rapidly entered the American popular vocabulary and became widely used, without reference to the novel, to refer to any absurd situation in which rationality and madness are radically indistinguishable. By showing how catch-22 operated in every arena of authority, the novel staged a concerted assault on every truism and institution in America—including religion, the military, the legal and medical establishments, and big business. Heller's satire thus targeted not just the military during World War II but also the complacent corporate conformism of the 1950s, the self-serving cynicism of the professions, Cold War militarism and patriotism, and above all the bureaucratic mindset.
Despite Heller's difficulty in finding a publisher and initial critical disdain, Catch-22 quickly became one of the most popular American novels of all time. Its irreverence toward established authority helped make it one of the key literary inspirations of the culture of rebellion that erupted during the presidencies of Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard M. Nixon. In his every phrase and motive, including his manic wordplay and compulsive sexuality, Yossarian embodied the decade's spirit of anarchic dissent. The Vietnam War, which seemed to many to embody and even caricature the madness depicted in the novel, greatly enhanced Catch-22's popularity.
There was only one catch and that was Catch-22, which specified that a concern for one's own safety in the face of dangers that were real and immediate was the process of a rational mind. Orr was crazy and could be grounded. All he had to do was ask; and as soon as he did, he would no longer be crazy and would have to fly more missions. Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn't, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn't have to; but if he didn't want to he was sane and had to. Yossarian was moved very deeply by the absolute simplicity of this clause of Catch-22 and let out a respectful whistle.
"That's some catch, that Catch-22," he observed.
"It's the best there is," Doc Daneeka agreed.
—Nils Gilman

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hanching chung 提到...

The chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency said late Tuesday in a press conference in Vienna that his agency was struggling to get timely information from Japan about its failing reactors, which has resulted in agency misstatements.