2015年12月6日 星期日

shine, cherish, constitutionality, freedom of speech/ expression



There are good reasons to resist calls to quieten down about the freedom of speech. The Economist explains why

The Economist explains
ECON.ST


Amazon Sues New York for Tax Law
Amazon sued New York state and its taxation department to contest the constitutionality of a new state law requiring out-of-state Internet retailers to collect New York state taxes.

QUOTATION OF THE DAY
"I think the moment has arrived for the court to shine the light of constitutionality on the reasons for detention."
JUDGE RICARDO M. URBINA, ordering the release of 17 detainees from Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.


verb shone or shinedshone or shined
1 [I] to send out or reflect light:
Is that light shining in your eyes?
The sun shone all afternoon.
He polished the brass till it shone.

2 shine with sth If a person's eyes or face shine with a quality, you can see that quality in them very strongly:
Her eyes shone with delight.

3 [I or T] to point a light in a particular direction:
The policeman walked along the street, shining a torch into every car.

4 [T] to make something bright by rubbing it:
Guy ironed his shirt and shined his shoes for the interview.

5 [I] to be extremely good at an activity or skill, in an obvious way:
She's hopeless at languages, but she shines at/in science.

noun [S or U]
when something is bright from reflected light on its surface:
hair with body and shine
Wax polish gives a lovely shine to wood furniture.

noun [C] INFORMAL
black eye (= an eye where the skin around it has gone dark because it has been hit):
I think you're going to have a real shiner there in the morning.

shininess Show phonetics
noun [U]

shining Show phonetics
adjective
a shining silver cup
She looked at him with shining (= bright and happy) eyes.
These pictures are shining (= excellent) examples of great photography.

adjective
A shiny surface is bright because it reflects light:
beautiful shiny hair
shiny black shoes
a shiny silver dollar

constitution (LAWS)
noun [C]
(a written document which forms) the set of political principles by which a state or organization is governed, especially in relation to the rights of the people it governs:
Britain has no written constitution.
The Constitution of the United States
Under (= As part of) the union constitution, a new committee must be elected each year.

constitutional
allowed by or contained in a constitution:
Such a policy would not be constitutional.
Freedom of speech should be a constitutional right.
NOTE: The opposite is unconstitutional.

constitutionally
adverb
according to the rules in the constitution:
There was some doubt as to whether the government were behaving constitutionally.

constitutionality Show phonetics
noun [U] US
the quality of being allowed by or contained in a constitution:
The judge chose to ignore questions of the constitutionality of the Senator's actions.

 con・sti・tu・tion・al


 
━━ a., n. 憲法の, 合憲の, 立憲的な; 生来の, 体質の; 構成[組織]の; (健康のための)散歩.
con・sti・tu・tion・al・ism n. 立憲制[主義]; 憲法擁護.
con・sti・tu・tion・al・ist n. 立憲主義者; 憲法学者.
con・sti・tu・tion・al・i・ty n. 合憲性.
con・sti・tu・tion・al・ly ad. 生来; 本質的に; ((文修飾)) 憲法上.
constitutional convention 〔米〕 憲法制定会議; (the C- C-) 合衆国憲法制定会議 ((1787年)).

constitutional government [monarchy] 立憲政治[君主国].



cherish Show phonetics
verb [T]
1 to love, protect and care for someone or something that is important to you:
Although I cherish my children, I do allow them their independence.
Her most cherished possession is a 1926 letter from F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Freedom of speech is a cherished (= carefully protected) right in this country. 1. Your most cherished assumptions will be challenged by your boss, the accepted way of doing thins will no longer do.這裡談組織初導入 Six Sigma時﹐以前所最珍惜的假想 都會給要玩six sigma的老版所挑戰-- 舉個比喻 以前1000PPM 或許OK 現在要更好

2 to keep hopes, memories or ideas in your mind because they are important to you and bring you pleasure:
I cherish the memories of the time we spent together.


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