2016年8月12日 星期五

descend, jamboree, cohort, horticulture, paramilitary, mediate, conflation

Universities in England accrued record operating surpluses worth nearly £1.8bn last year, as their bank balances were filled by the first full cohort of students paying the £9,000 tuition fee.

In Debate, Cruz and Rubio Urge G.O.P. to Align Against Trump
Senators Marco Rubio and Ted Cruz questioned Donald J. Trump’s conservative loyalties, his temperament and his ability to defeat Hillary Clinton in a standoff that descended into the vulgar.

Trying to Avoid the Pitfalls of Power

President Xi Jinping of China and President Obama vowed to keep their disputes over cyberespying and territorial claims from descending into a cold-war mentality.

Thatcher had sought, reasonably enough, to find a formula that might save the hunger strikers' lives without compromising the principle that democratic governments don't deal with paramilitary organizations. Nonetheless, had the facts emerged at the time, her reputation would have suffered gravely and, to the end of her days, she could not bring herself to admit that she had had dealings with terrorists.

 The Collaborative Study is an occupational cohort study of 6022 men and 1006 women of working age recruited from 27 workplaces throughout the central belt of Scotland. It took place between 1970 and 1973. The primary multiple health examination consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a 20 minute attendance for screening at a temporary centre for a height and weight check, respiratory function test, 6 lead ECG, blood pressure, chest x-ray, and 10 ml. fasting blood plasma sample for cholesterol, triglycerides and the phenotyping of lipoproteins. The questionnaire differed from that used in the MAIN study as it included more detailed questions on lifestyle and early life.

Dubai Property Fair Set to Begin
Dubai property-industry executives are anxiously watching to see if the Cityscape real-estate jamboree can give the emirate a much-needed shot in the arm.

Artists, collectors, critics, curators and dealers have descended on London through Sunday to take part in the seventh annual Frieze Art Fair (www.friezeartfair.com), a key marketplace for contemporary art globally, with 173 galleries from 33 countries, showcasing more than 1,000 artists. Frieze's success has inspired an autumn art jamboree throughout the city, stimulating satellite fairs, auction sales and shows in other galleries.

Started in 2003 by Frieze Magazine editors Matthew Slotover and Amanda Sharp to sell contemporary art to a growing cohort of international collectors, fair participants are vetted by a committee of their peers to attract blue-chip galleries, as well as a high-spending, contemporary-art-loving audience. "We provide a focused contemporary art fair—that is our appeal," Ms. Sharp says.

Belgian King Asks Outgoing Prime Minister for Help

Six months after parliamentary elections, Belgium remains without a
government. Outgoing PM Guy Verhofstadt has launched mediation talks with
the country's main parties after Belgian King Albert approached him for

The DW-WORLD Article

On the way to learning that one thing can represent another, young children often conflate the real item and its symbol. These errors show how difficult it is to start thinking symbolically

Foley Intermediate School began offering separate classes for boys and girls a few years ago, after the school’s principal, Lee Mansell, read a book by Michael Gurian called “Boys and Girls Learn Differently!” After that, she read a magazine article by Sax and thought that his insights would help improve the test scores of Foley’s lowest-achieving cohort, minority boys.


━━ n. (古ローマの)歩兵隊 ((legionの⊆1/10⊇(300-600人))); 軍隊; 仲間, 連中; 集団, 群れ; 配下; 弟子; 支持者.
group noun [C]
1 SPECIALIZED a group of people who share a characteristic, usually age:
This study followed up a cohort of 386 patients aged 65 + for six months after their discharge home.

2 DISAPPROVING a group of people who support a particular person, usually a leader:
The Mayor and his cohorts have abused their positions of power.

verb [T] ━━ vt. 融合させる; 2種の異本を1つにまとめる.
to combine two or more separate things, especially pieces of text, to form a whole:
She succeeded in conflating the three plays to produce a fresh new work.

noun [C or U]

verb [I or T]
to talk to two separate people or groups involved in a disagreement to try to help them to agree or find a solution to their problems:
Negotiators were called in to mediate between the two sides.
The two envoys have succeeded in mediating an end to the war.

noun [U]
Last-minute attempts at mediation failed.


━━ a. 中間の, 仲介の.
━━  vi. 介在する; 調停する ((between)).
━━ vt. 調停する; 仲をとりもつ; 取り次ぐ.
 me・di・ate・ly ━━ ad. 間接に.
 me・di・a・tion ━━ n. 調停.
 me・di・a・tor ━━ n. 調停者; 【化・生物】媒介物質.
 ━━ a. 仲裁の, 調停の.


Pronunciation: /dɪˈsɛnd/

Definition of descend

[no object]
  • move or fall downwards:the aircraft began to descend
  • [with object] move down (a slope or stairs):the vehicle descended a ramp
  • (of a road, path, or flight of steps) slope or lead downwards:a side road descended into the forest [with object]:a flight of stairs descended a steep slope
  • move down a scale of quality: (as adjective descending)the categories are listed in descending order of usefulness
  • Music (of sound) become lower in pitch: (as adjective descending)a passage of descending chords
  • (descend to) act in a shameful way that is far below one’s usual standards:he was scrupulous in refusing to descend to misrepresentation
  • (descend into) (of a situation or group of people) reach (an undesirable state):the army had descended into chaos
  • 2 (descend on/upon) make a sudden attack on:the militia descended on Rye
  • (descend on/upon) make an unexpected visit to:groups of visiting supporters descended on a local pub
  • (of a feeling) develop suddenly and affect a place or person:an air of gloom descended on Labour Party headquarters
  • (of night or darkness) begin to occur:as the winter darkness descended, the fighting ceased
  • 3 (be descended from) be a blood relative of (a specified ancestor):John Dalrymple was descended from an ancient Ayrshire family
  • (of an asset) pass by inheritance, typically from parent to child:his lands descended to his eldest son


Middle English: from Old French descendre, from Latin descendere, from de- 'down' + scandere 'to climb'

('hôrt') pronunciation
  1. A group or band of people.
  2. A companion or associate.
  3. A generational group as defined in demographics, statistics, or market research: "The cohort of people aged 30 to 39 . . . were more conservative" (American Demographics).
    1. One of the 10 divisions of a Roman legion, consisting of 300 to 600 men.
    2. A group of soldiers.
[Middle English, from Old French cohorte, from Latin cohors, cohort-.]
USAGE NOTE In Caesar's Gallic War a cohort was a unit of soldiers. There were 6 centuries (100 men) to a cohort, 10 cohorts to a legion (therefore 6,000 men). A century, then, would correspond to a company, a cohort to a battalion, and a legion to a regiment. Because of the word's history, some critics insist that cohort should be used only to refer to a group of people and never to an individual. In recent years, however, the use of cohort to refer to an individual rather than a group has become very common and is now in fact the dominant usage. Seventy-one percent of the Usage Panel accepts the sentence The cashiered dictator and his cohorts have all written their memoirs, while only 43 percent accepts The gangster walked into the room surrounded by his cohort. • Perhaps because of its original military meaning and paramilitary associations, cohort usually has a somewhat negative connotation, and therefore critics of the President rather than his supporters might use a phrase like the President and his cohorts.


  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[kóuhɔːrt]
1 (古代ローマの)歩兵隊:1隊が300人-600人くらいからなる. ⇒LEGION 1
2 軍団, 軍隊;群, グループ, 一団.
3 《生物・統計学》コホート:統計上同一の性質をもつ集団;(特に)同齢[同年出生]集団.
4 ((主に米・軽蔑))仲間;支持者;共犯者
a drinking cohort
[ラテン語cohors (co-共に+hors庭=庭に共に集まり訓練をうける者→軍団). △HORTICULTURE

Cohort (statistics)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other senses of this word, see cohort (disambiguation).
In statistics and demography, a cohort is a group of subjects who have shared a particular event together during a particular time span[1] (e.g., people born in Europe between 1918 and 1939; survivors of an aircrash; truck drivers who smoked between age 30 and 40). Cohorts may be tracked over extended periods in a cohort study. The cohort can be modified by censoring, i.e. excluding certain individuals from statistical calculations relating to time periods (e.g., after death) when their data would contaminate the conclusions.
The term cohort can also be used where membership of a group is defined by some factor other than a time-based one: for example, where a study covers workers in many buildings, a cohort might consist of the people who work in a given building.[2]
Demography often contrasts cohort perspectives and period perspectives. For instance, the total cohort fertility rate is an index of the average completed family size for cohorts of women, but since it can only be known for women who have finished child-bearing, it cannot be measured for currently fertile women. It can be calculated as the sum of the cohort's age-specific fertility rates that obtain as it ages through time. In contrast, the total period fertility rate uses current age-specific fertility rates to calculate the completed family size for a notional woman were she to experience these fertility rates through her life.

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up^ "BLS Information". Glossary. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Division of Information Services. February 28, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  2. Jump up^ Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9

External links[edit]


Pronunciation: /ˌparəˈmɪlɪt(ə)ri/

Definition of paramilitary


  •  organized similarly to a military force:illegal paramilitary groups paramilitary police

noun (plural paramilitaries)

a member of a paramilitary organization.


(dĭ-sĕnd') pronunciation

v., -scend·ed, -scend·ing, -scends. v.intr.
  1. To move from a higher to a lower place; come or go down.
  2. To slope, extend, or incline downward: "A rough path descended like a steep stair into the plain" (J.R.R. Tolkien).
    1. To come from an ancestor or ancestry: He was descended from a pioneer family.
    2. To come down from a source; derive: a tradition descending from colonial days.
    3. To pass by inheritance: The house has descended through four generations.
  3. To lower oneself; stoop: "She, the conqueror, had descended to the level of the conquered" (James Bryce).
  4. To proceed or progress downward, as in rank, pitch, or scale: titles listed in descending order of importance; notes that descended to the lower register.
  5. To arrive or attack in a sudden or an overwhelming manner: summer tourists descending on the seashore village.
    1. To move from a higher to a lower part of; go down.
    2. To get down from: "People descended the minibus that shuttled guests to the nearby . . . beach" (Howard Kaplan).
  1. To extend or proceed downward along: a road that descended the mountain in sharp curves.
[Middle English descenden, from Old French descendre, from Latin dēscendere : dē-, de- + scandere, to climb.]
descendible de·scend'i·ble or de·scend'a·ble adj.

  • jamboree /ˌdʒæmbəˈriː/ DJ 真人發音 /ˈdʒæmbə'ri/ KK
    • noun
      • a large party or celebration 大型聚會;慶祝會
      • a large meeting of Scouts or Guides 童子軍大會;女童子軍大會

  • jamboree
    • A jamboree is a party, celebration, or other gathering where there is a large number of people and a lot of excitement, fun, and enjoyment.