2016年6月5日 星期日

hobnob, prime, priming, pump-priming, damp squib, sticks of dynamite, at the tills, nationalised, privatised


In experiments, young female rats housed with groups of unrelated rat pups had fully developed mothering skills as adults, compared with control rats without caregiving experience.

Teens who baby-sit may alter their brain chemistry in a way that could make them better parents, an animal study suggests.
ON.WSJ.COM|由 ANN LUKITS 上傳



Reaching the top is difficult in Nepal, as any mountaineer will tell you—and nowhere more so than in business
How to win friends and influence people in Nepal
ECON.ST
The fuss over Obamacare's teething troubles is obscuring a bigger story for investors: American health care is gradually being both nationalised and privatised http://econ.st/1jmCbhX


In her early years in politics, economic liberalism was in retreat, the Soviet Union was extending its empire, and Milton Friedman and Friedrich Hayek were dismissed as academic eccentrics. In Britain the government hobnobbed with trade unions ("beer and sandwiches in Number 10"), handed out subsidies to failing nationalised industries and primed the pump through Keynesian demand management.



 More than 100 years ago, Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel got extremely rich after improving on nitroglycerin to make dynamite. A scientist and pacifist, Nobel was distressed by the use of dynamite in war. In his 1895 will, he used his estate to establish ..


China was able to turn to a package of pump-priming measures in the aftermath of the collapse of Lehman Brothers in autumn 2008, because its CPI was in a downward phase.


London's Luxury Stores Win Some Gold
While the Olympic Games proved a damp squib for many London businesses, the capital's upmarket retailers have cashed in at the tills.

2010/7
Chinese Tourism Boom May Prove Damp Squib in Japan, Asahi Says
BusinessWeek
By Ben Richardson July 3 (Bloomberg) -- Japan's plan to ease visa restrictions on tourists from China may not have the desired effect of pump-priming the ...


prime 2 

Pronunciation: /prʌɪm/ 

VERB

[WITH OBJECT]
1Make (something) ready for use or action, in particular:
1.1Prepare (a firearm or explosive device) for firing or detonation:he grabbed a gun from a nearby wall and primed it
1.2Cover (a surface) with a primer:prime the new timber before painting the sill
1.3Pour or spray liquid into (a pump) before starting in order to seal the moving parts and facilitate its operation:ensure a sufficient head of water is available to prime the pump
1.4Inject extra fuel into (the cylinder or carburettor of an internal combustion engine) in order to facilitate starting.
1.5[NO OBJECT] (Of a steam engine or its boiler) mix water with the steam being passed into the cylinder.
1.6Biology & Medicine Induce a susceptibility or proclivity in (an animal, person, or tissue):artificial milk can prime the baby’s body for future allergic reactions
1.7Biochemistry Serve as a starting material for (a polymerization process):the oligonucleotide might prime DNA polymerase activity at multiple sites
2Prepare (someone) for a situation, typically by supplying them with relevant information:[WITH OBJECT AND INFINITIVE]: the sentries had been primed to admit him without challenge

Phrases

prime the pump

Stimulate the growth or success of something by supplying it with money:the money was intended to prime the community care pump

Origin

Early 16th century (in the sense 'fill, load'): origin uncertain; probably based on Latin primus'first', since the sense expressed is a ‘first’ operation prior to something else.

prime

発音
práim
primeの変化形
primes (複数形) • primed (過去形) • primed (過去分詞) • priming (現在分詞) • primes (三人称単数現在)
[形]((限定))
1 もっとも重要な, 主要な;もっとも適切な;卓越[傑出]した, 最高位の
of prime importance
最重要な
a prime example
適例
the prime authority on Milton
ミルトンの最高権威.
2 最高の商業的価値がある;視聴率1位の.
3 第一級の;すばらしい;〈牛肉などが〉最上[極上]の(▼prime, choice, good, commercialの順)
a prime rib
極上のあばら肉.
4 最初の, 初期の, 原始の;根本の, 基本的な
the prime cause
根本的原因.
5 《数学》素数の;(…に対し)互いに素の((to ...)).
6 元気で若々しい.
━━[名]
1 [U]((通例the [one's] 〜))最盛期, 全盛;壮年期;青春(期)
in the prime of life
人生の盛りに
pass one's prime
全盛期を過ぎる
be cut off in one's prime
若くして命を失う.
2 [U]((通例the 〜))((文))(期間の)初期, 初め;春;夜明け, 早朝, 日の出時
the prime of the year
((詩))春.
3 ((しばしばP-))《カトリック》一時課:聖務定時課(canonical hour)の二番目.
4 《数学》素数.
5 プライム符号(′);分(minute).
6 《フェンシング》(防御姿勢の)第一の構え.
7 [U]《音楽》同音(unison);主音.
8prime rate.
━━[動](他)
1 …を準備[用意]する(prepare).
2 〈火器に〉火薬を詰める;〈火薬・地雷などに〉導火線をつける.
3 〈ポンプに〉呼び水を差す;〈シリンダー・気化器に〉ガソリンを入れる.
4 〈壁などを〉下塗りする.
5 〈人に〉予備知識を与える, 入れ知恵する;〈人に〉(情報などを)(あらかじめ)与える((with ...)).
6 …に(飲食物を)たっぷり与える((with ...)).
[ラテン語. はじめ「礼拝の第1回目の時間」をさしたが, のちに一般化した]

prime

adjective

  • 1of first importance; main:a nurse’s prime concern is the well-being of the patient
  • from which another thing may derive or proceed:Diogenes' conclusion that air is the prime matter
  • 2 [attributive] of the best possible quality; excellent:prime cuts of meat
  • having all the typical characteristics of something:the novel is a prime example of the genre
  • most suitable or likely:any hospital with high costs is a prime candidate for closure
  • 3 Mathematics (of a number) divisible only by itself and unity (e.g. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11).
  • [predic.] (of two or more numbers in relation to each other) having no common factor but unity: a congruence whose modulus is a number prime to b

noun

  • 1 [in singular] the state or time of greatest vigour or success in a person’s life:you’re in the prime of life he wasn’t elderly, but clearly past his prime
  • archaic the beginning of something:the prime of the world
  • 2 Christian Church a service forming part of the Divine Office of the Western Church, traditionally said at the first hour of the day (i.e. 6 a.m.), but now little used.
  • 3a prime number.
  • 4 Printing a symbol (ʹ) written after a letter or symbol as a distinguishing mark or after a figure as a symbol for minutes or feet.
  • 5 Fencing the first of eight parrying positions, used to protect the upper inside of the body, with the sword hand at head height in pronation and the tip of the blade pointing downwards.
    [French]
  • 6a special section in a cycle race, attracting a special prize.
primeness
noun

Origin:

Old English prīm (in prime1 (sense 2 of the noun)), from Latin prima (hora) 'first (hour)', reinforced in Middle English by Old French prime; the adjective dates from late Middle English, via Old French from Latin primus 'first'


 最近讀K. J. Wu 轉來的洪蘭教授的"負面言語讓人「未戰先敗」"
其中引用 Daniel Kahneman的一些想法
不過我認為洪教授太盡信書

 .......諾貝爾經濟獎得主康納曼(D.  Kahneman)在他的新書《Thinking, fast and slow  》中說,香蕉和嘔吐這兩個字本不相干,但是一旦把它們放在一起,會馬上令人感到不愉快。
大腦會自動作時間的序列,把香蕉和嘔吐連成因果,你就對香蕉產生暫時性的反感,連帶對黃色水果也不喜歡了。
這個自動化聯結所產生的作用,並不限於概念和文字,它甚至會改變你的行為。
 紐約大學心理系教授巴夫請學生從五個字中選四個字出來造句,如:find(發現)、he(他)、if(如果)、yellow(黃色)、instantly(立即)。另一組學生看到的字則是與「老」有關,如:forgetful(健忘的)、bald(禿頭的)、gray(灰色的)、wrinkle(皺紋)。
做完之後,學生要到走廊另一端的實驗室去做另一個實驗。他測量學生走過走廊的時間,結果發現,那些看到跟「老」相關字組的大學生,走的時間比看中性字組來得慢。原因在於,「健忘」、「禿頭」、「皺紋」這些字促發了老的意念;這個意念又促發了行為,使學生走路變慢了。

 這個「促發效應」(priming  effect)非常強烈。即使沒有一個學生注意到,這些字有共同的主題「老」。他們也都堅持,老的念頭從未進入他們心中。然而,他們的行動卻變慢了,這就是所謂的「意念動作效應」(ideomotor effect)。
更可怕的是,這個效應也可以倒過來做,動作也會強化意念。德國的研究者請學生在房間中走五分鐘,每一分鐘走三十步,這是一般大學生步伐速度的三分之一,然後請他們在電腦上辨認一閃而過的單字,結果發現這些慢走的學生,對老年有關的字辨識特別快,如forgetful、old。
 假如你動作像老人,它會強化你老年的思想,這效應是雙向的。因為這暗示的作用是不自覺地發生。官員在談論國家前途時,宜從正向著手去尋找解決方式,不可未戰先敗。........

 現在我們可以查到近日心理學中的一熱門話題/爭議:Priming (psychology)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 此文批評欄中有許多異議和建議:

Criticism

Many of the priming effects could not be replicated in further studies, casting doubt on their effectiveness or even existence.[43] Nobel Laurate and psychologist Daniel Kahneman has called on social psychologists to check the robustness of priming studies in an open letter to the community, claiming that social psychology has become a "poster child for doubts about the integrity of psychological research."[44].....
 換句話說  "the priming effects"還只是待詳細驗證的假說.
教授似乎過於肯定了.
 

pump-priming
or pump priming (pŭmp'prī'mĭng)
n.
Government action taken to stimulate the economy, as spending money in the commercial sector, cutting taxes, or reducing interest rates.





A typical Chinese Squib
A squib is a miniature explosive device used in a wide range of industries, from special effects to military applications. They resemble tiny sticks of dynamite, both in appearance and construction, although with considerably less explosive power. Squibs can be used to generate mechanical force, as well as to provide pyrotechnic effects for both film and live theatrics. Squibs can be used for shattering or propelling a variety of materials.[1]

dynamite


  音節
dy • na • mite
発音
dáinəmàit
レベル
社会人必須
dynamiteの変化形
dynamites (複数形) • dynamited (過去形) • dynamited (過去分詞) • dynamiting (現在分詞) • dynamites (三人称単数現在)
dynamiteの慣用句
dynamiter, (全1件)
[名][U]
1 ダイナマイト
a stick of dynamite
ダイナマイト1本.
2 ((略式))強烈な効果を与える人[物], ぶっそうな人[物].
3 ((俗))ヘロイン, マリファナ.
━━[動](他)…を[に]ダイナマイトで爆破する[を仕掛ける].
━━[形]((略式))最高の, すごい.
━━[間]いかす.
dý・na・mìt・er
[名](非合法な目的の)ダイナマイト使用者.

squib


 音節
squib
発音
skwíb
squibの変化形
squibs (複数形) • squibs (三人称単数現在)
[名]
1 花火;爆竹.
2 ((文))風刺文;短信;埋めくさ記事.
3 ((豪))臆病(おくびょう)者.
━━[動](〜bed, 〜・bing)(自)
1 風刺的な文を書く.
2 爆竹を鳴らす;爆発する.
3 ちょこちょこ動き回る.
4 ((豪))恐れる;逃げる.
━━(他)
1 …を風刺する.
2 …を鳴らす, 〈爆竹を〉投げる, 鳴らす.




till


 音節
till2
発音
tíl
tillの変化形
tills (複数形)
[名]((英))(商店・銀行などの)現金入れ引き出し(の中の金), (銀行の)窓口, レジスター(((英))register);貴重品入れ引き出し;書類整理棚
have one's fingers [one's handin the till [=raid the till]


 hobnob
verb (hobnobs, hobnobbing, hobnobbed)


[no object] informal
  • mix socially, especially with those of perceived higher social status:he was hobnobbing with the great and good

Origin:

early 19th century (in the sense 'drink together'): from archaic hob or nob, hob and nob, probably meaning 'give and take', used by two people drinking to each other's health, from dialect hab nab 'have or not have'


[動](〜bed, 〜・bing)(自)((略式))(金持ちや有力者などと)親しくつき合う, 打ち解ける, 打ち解けて話す, (…と)いっしょに酒を飲む, 酒をくみかわす((together/with ...)).
━━[名]打ち解けた話し合い[おしゃべり], 懇談;話し[飲み]友だち.

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