2016年10月28日 星期五

dog-whistle, fry, hot seat, hot up, blossoming, whistle-blower, blowing the whistle, dog-whistle politics














How Memes Are Shaping the Election

Viral internet in-jokes have become a dog whistle and potent force in the 2016 presidential race, says Brad Kim of Know Your Meme.

"Still, what do you expect of a society whose priorities are so self-loathingly out of whack that there are 300 HMRC employees investigating tax evasion of over £70bn, and 3,250 Department of Work and Pensions bods chasing down £1.2bn of benefit fraud."





Britain’s tax code is an incredible 17, 000 pages long, surely a dog-whistle to the very rich


I asked people who legally avoid tax why the tax system is long, complex...


THEGUARDIAN.COM|由 MARINA HYDE 上傳












A pile of wood

A Whistle-Blower, a Criminal or Both
Room for Debate asks: How should the U.S. handle the case of Edward J. Snowden, who disclosed secrets about N.S.A. surveillance?


Dog-whistle politics is political messaging employing coded language that appears to mean one thing to the general population but has an additional, different or more specific resonance for a targeted subgroup. The phrase is only ever used as a pejorative, because of the inherently deceptive nature of the practice and because the dog-whistle messages are frequently themselves distasteful, for example by empathizing with racist attitudes. It is an analogy to dog whistles, which are built in such a way that their high-frequency whistle is heard by dogs, but is inaudible to humans.
The term can be distinguished from "code words" used by hospital staff or other specialist workers, in that dog-whistling is specific to the political realm, and the messaging referred to as the dog-whistle has an understandable meaning for a general audience, rather than being incomprehensible.
Contents

Origin and meaning

According to William Safire, the phrase may have been borrowed from the field of opinion polling. Safire quotes Richard Morin, director of polling for The Washington Post, as writing in 1988 that "subtle changes in question-wording sometimes produce remarkably different results. ... researchers call this the 'Dog Whistle Effect': Respondents hear something in the question that researchers do not," and speculates that campaign workers adapted the phrase from political pollsters.[1]
In her book Voting for Jesus: Christianity and Politics in Australia, academic Amanda Lohrey writes that the goal of the dog-whistle is to appeal to the greatest possible number of electors while alienating the smallest possible number. She uses as an example Australian politicians using broadly-appealing words such as "family" and "values" which have extra resonance for Christians, while avoiding overt Christian moralizing that might be a turn-off for non-Christian voters.[2]
Most often, it is left-wing observers accusing right-wing politicians of dog-whistling, rather than the reverse.[citation needed]
Australian political theorist Robert E. Goodin argues that the problem with dog-whistling is that it undermines democracy, because if voters have different understandings of what they were supporting during a campaign, the fact that they were seeming to support the same thing is "democratically meaningless" and does not give the dog-whistler a policy mandate.[3]



Ex-UBS Banker Seeks Billions for Blowing Whistle
By LYNNLEY BROWNING
Bradley C. Birkenfeld, who helped American clients illegally evade taxes and then helped the United States government find them, could reap a giant reward.
What does blow the whistle mean? Blowing the whistle
is calling attention to wrongdoing.



 Hazy Future for S.E.C.'s Blossoming Whistle-Blower Effort

By BEN PROTESS and NATHANIEL POPPER

The Securities and Exchange Commission's program is at a crossroads as some Wall Street firms make it difficult for employees to talk and lawyers criticize it for slow responses.


S.E.C. on the Hot Seat: As it prepares politically contentious final rules on corporate whistle-blowers, the Securities and Exchange Commission has come under renewed criticism about the revolving door involving its own employees, writes Peter J. Henning in the White Collar Watch column for DealBook.


在討論各體制內,個人道德這個課題時,自然就討論到「吹口哨的人」(whistle-blower)的角色。
「吹口哨的人」乃是政府及公司組織出問題時,會吹口哨示警及檢舉的人。而前述的美國三大案件,其實都有這種「吹口哨的人」。


The Standard Atomic Bomb Is Pathetic
If you're going to worry about an attack, you should worry about an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It would fry everything electronic in America and kill millions of people.


Whether bitter or sweetened, the tea is winning admirers. According to the latest CBS News/New York Times poll, roughly 1 in 5 adult Americans identifies with the Tea Party movement, which scored its first major victory last month when Republican Scott Brown won the Massachusetts Senate seat long held by the late Democrat Ted Kennedy. Brown's promises to bolster U.S. defenses against terrorists and block Obama's health care reforms gave him a blinding Tea Party aura, the glow of which sent fear through the Administration and fried the circuits of Congress.

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1964903,00.html?xid=newsletter-weekly#ixzz0gJdK2Wjm



dog whistleLine breaks: dog whis¦tle


Definition of dog whistle in English:

NOUN

1high-pitched whistle used to train dogs, typically having a sound inaudible to humans.
1.1[USUALLY AS MODIFIER] A subtly aimed political message which is intended for, and can only be understood by, a particular demographic group:dog-whistle issues such as immigration andcrime


hot

verb (hots, hotting, hotted)

(hot something up or hot up) British informal
  • become or make hot: [with object]:he hotted up the flask in Daisy’s hand
  • become or make more active, lively, or exciting: [no object]:the championship contest hotted up
fry
v., fried (frīd), fry·ing, fries (frīz). v.tr.
  1. To cook over direct heat in hot oil or fat.
  2. Slang. To destroy (electronic circuitry) with excessive heat or current: "a power surge to the computer that fried a number of sensitive electronic components" (Erik Sandberg-Diment).
v.intr.
  1. To be cooked in a pan over direct heat in hot oil or fat.
  2. Slang. To undergo execution in an electric chair.
n., pl., fries (frīz).
  1. A French fry. Often used in the plural.
  2. A dish of a fried food.
  3. A social gathering at which food is fried and eaten: a fish fry.
[Middle English frien, from Old French frire, from Latin frīgere.]

hot seat
  1. Slang. The electric chair.
  2. Informal. A position in which one is subjected to extreme stress or discomfort, as by excessive criticism.





Definition of whistle-blower




noun

  • a person who informs on a person or organization engaged in an illicit activity.

Derivatives






whistle-blowing

noun & adjective

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