2017年2月16日 星期四

trumped-up, prim, subliminal, “priming” people

A growing silence in Russia

The Putin government's need to silence an opposition leader through trumped-up charges shows its insecurity.

D.H. Lawrence
D. H. Lawrence visited Tahiti on his travels in search of somewhere non-British to live. In his "Critical Studies in Classic American Literature" (1923), Lawrence discusses Typee, Omoo (published on this day in 1847), and Herman Melville’s attraction to the South Seas:
"Never man instinctively hated human life, our human life, as we have it, more than Melville did. And never was a man so passionately filled with the sense of vastness and mystery of life which is non-human. He was mad to look over our horizons. Anywhere, anywhere out of our world. To get away. To get away, out!
To get away, out of our life. To cross a horizon into another life. No matter what life, so long as it is another life.
Away, away from humanity. To the sea. The naked salt, elemental sea. To go to sea, to escape humanity."
At the end of the chapter, Lawrence chastises Melville for coming back to prim New England, to be boxed in by family, career and a false civilization. The essay concludes with Lawrence admitting that he is talking as much about himself as Melville:
"Melville was, at the core, a mystic and an idealist.
Perhaps, so am I.
And he stuck to his ideal guns.
I abandon mine.
He was a mystic who raved because the old ideal guns shot havoc. The guns of the 'noble spirit'. Of 'ideal love'. I say, let the old guns rot.
Get new ones, and shoot straight."

在研究人員看來,如果想要徹底根除科學領域更廣泛的不平等現象,各界就必須直面並理解這種猶豫不決的心理,以及輕微的、可能出自潛意 識且毫無根據的反數理學科情緒(quantipathy)。充足的證據已經駁斥了那種認為女性大腦根本不能進行空間思維,量子飛躍和數學題運算的觀點。在世界範圍內,女孩的數 學平均成績與男孩大體一致,並無優劣之別。

 As researchers see it, that reluctance, that slight and possibly subliminal case of unfounded quantipathy, must be confronted and understood if the wider inequities in science are to be rooted out for good. Ample evidence refutes the notion that female brains just can’t rotate the object, leap the quantum, do the math. Worldwide, girls’ average math scores are on a par with those of boys.

Psychologists say that “priming” people in this way is not some form of hypnotism, or even subliminal seduction; rather, it’s a demonstration of how everyday sights, smells and sounds can selectively activate goals or motives that people already have.

Priming the Unconscious
The idea of subliminal influence has a mixed reputation among scientists because of a history of advertising hype and apparent fraud. In 1957, an ad man named James Vicary claimed to have increased sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn at a movie theater in Fort Lee, N.J., by secretly flashing the words “Eat popcorn” and “Drink Coke” during the film, too quickly to be consciously noticed. But advertisers and regulators doubted his story from the beginning, and in a 1962 interview, Mr. Vicary acknowledged that he had trumped up the findings to gain attention for his business.
Later studies of products promising subliminal improvement, for things like memory and self-esteem, found no effect.


Who’s Minding the Mind?

Published: July 31, 2007


Pronunciation: /prɪm/ 

ADJECTIVE (primmerprimmest)

Feeling or showing disapproval of anything regarded as improperstiffly correct:a very prim and proper lady

VERB (primsprimmingprimmed)

Purse (the mouth or lips) into a prim expression:Laurie primmed up his mouth



Pronunciation: /ˈprɪmli/ 


Pronunciation: /ˈprɪmnəs/ 


Late 17th century (as a verb): probably ultimately from Old French prinProvençal prim'excellent, delicate', from Latin primus 'first'.

prime 2 

Pronunciation: /prʌɪm/ 

1Make (something) ready for use or action, in particular:
1.1Prepare (a firearm or explosive device) for firing or detonation:he grabbed a gun from a nearby wall and primed it
1.2Cover (a surface) with a primer:prime the new timber before painting the sill
1.3Pour or spray liquid into (a pump) before starting in order to seal the moving parts and facilitate its operation:ensure a sufficient head of water is available to prime the pump
1.4Inject extra fuel into (the cylinder or carburettor of an internal combustion engine) in order to facilitate starting.
1.5[NO OBJECT] (Of a steam engine or its boiler) mix water with the steam being passed into the cylinder.
1.6Biology & Medicine Induce a susceptibility or proclivity in (an animal, person, or tissue):artificial milk can prime the baby’s body for future allergic reactions
1.7Biochemistry Serve as a starting material for (a polymerization process):the oligonucleotide might prime DNA polymerase activity at multiple sites
2Prepare (someone) for a situation, typically by supplying them with relevant information:[WITH OBJECT AND INFINITIVE]: the sentries had been primed to admit him without challenge


prime the pump

Stimulate the growth or success of something by supplying it with money:the money was intended to prime the community care pump


Early 16th century (in the sense 'fill, load'): origin uncertain; probably based on Latin primus'first', since the sense expressed is a ‘first’ operation prior to something else.


Pronunciation: /ˈprʌɪmɪŋ/ 

1A substance which primes something for use or action, in particular:
1.1another term for primer1.
1.2Gunpowder placed in the pan of a firearm to ignite a charge:he checked the priming of his gun



Pronunciation: /səˈblɪmɪn(ə)l/ 


(Of a stimulus or mental process) below the threshold of sensation or consciousness; perceived by or affecting someone’s mind without their being aware of it.


Pronunciation: /səbˈlɪmɪnəli/ 


Late 19th century: from sub- 'below' + Latin limenlimin- 'threshold' -al.

  1. [形容詞] 〔心理〕 意識下の,閾いき下の,潜在意識の
    • subliminal perception
    • サブリミナル知覚(意識されない微弱な刺激に対する反応・知覚)
    • subliminal learning
    • 〔心理〕 閾下学習
    • subliminal advertising
    • サブリミナル[閾下]広告(映画フィルムなどの間に広告の映像を挿入して瞬間的に写し,潜在意識に訴える).
  1. ━━ [名詞] (また sublíminal sélf)
  2. 〔心理〕 閾下自我,潜在的自我.
  3. [語源]
    1886.SUB-+ラテン語 līmin-(līmen「敷居,境」の語幹)+-AL1

    1. invented as an excuse or a false accusation.
      "he was arrested on trumped-up charges"