He said that the goal of testing the banks was to "replace uncertainty with transparency," although he acknowledged that some regarded the tests as "overly punitive."
The American recapitalization plan has emerged as one of the most favored new options being discussed in Washington and on Wall Street, officials told The Times. But there are concerns.
Treasury officials worry that aggressive government purchases, if not done properly, could alarm bank shareholders by appearing to be punitive or could be interpreted by the market as a sign that target banks were failing.
1 FORMAL intended as a punishment:
The UN has imposed punitive sanctions on the invading country.
LEGAL She is suing the newspaper for $5 million punitive damages claiming they knew the article about her was untrue.
2 used to describe costs which are so high they are difficult to pay, and which are often used to punish someone or limit their activities:
The President has threatened to impose punitive import duties/tariffs on a range of foreign goods.
ControversyIn 2007, Patsy Bates, a California beautician, sued Health Net claiming that they wrongfully terminated her care in the middle of her chemotherapy treatments. Internal company documents made public during the law suit revealed that the company had tied bonuses to dropping coverage in order to encourage its analysts in charge of recission reviews to discover reasons (such as application fraud) to discontinue coverage to clients who the company deems will cost them money. The company pointed out that Bates had withheld critical information - that she had damaged her heart by the use of fen-phen for diet purposes and stated an inaccurate weight; Bates replied that the insurance broker had filled out the form for her and she had been busy in her salon.  In February of 2008 the court ruled in favor of Bates, ordering Health Net to pay 8.4 million in punitive damages and $750,000 for emotional distress. 
52歲的珮西‧貝茲2004年被「健康網保險公司」(Health Net Inc.)取消保單後，積欠12萬9000美元醫療費。仲裁法官奇安契提22日喻令健康網公司為她支付那筆醫療費，另加840萬美元懲罰性賠償，以及75萬美元賠償她遭遇的情緒困擾。
Cadbury Schweppes set a date of May 7 for the completion of its demerger process, and said it had secured credit agreements for both new companies.
To plunge down into; to sink; to immerse. [Obs.]
The water in which it was demerged.Boyle.
Google and Microsoft Take Up Battle Stations
By STEPHEN LABATON and MIGUEL HELFT
With Microsoft hoping to buy Yahoo, Google has begun to lay the groundwork to try to delay or derail any deal.
the place or position that one is assigned to for battle or in an emergency.
merge Show phonetics
1 [I or T] to combine or join together, or to cause things to do this:
They decided to merge the two companies into one.
The country's two biggest banks are planning to merge.
After a while the narrow track merges with a wider path.
2 [I] US FOR filter in
merger Show phonetics
when two or more companies join together:
She's an attorney who advises companies about mergers and takeovers.
The merger of these two companies would create the world's biggest accounting firm.
(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)