2016年12月12日 星期一

co-opt, self-care, variorum, noteworthy, exaptation, co-option, preadaptation

Self-care loses meaning, Nikolay Chernyshevsky’s influence on Russia, cities in the age of global warming, and other news

How Audre Lorde’s phrase has been co-opted by advertisers; plus, a Russian novel’s effect on global politics and more in today’s roundup.

“It just feels like a big Miller Lite tent. It’s co-opting queer identity as a way to make money."

Disaffected by the annual parade, members of San Francisco’s LGBT…

From old gig tickets to toilet paper and £20 notes, almost anything can be co-opted as a bookmark, as as a recent callout for pictures revealed. How do you mark your place in books?

But “knowing” is almost always more appealing than “not knowing,” so businesses and organizations tended to co-opt the empirical side of Deming – the control side – and simply ignore the less tangible, softer side of Deming.  Consequently, TQM as a “business philosophy” would usually fail, just as innovation deployments fail more often than not today.

A public data infrastructure would require a large cluster of computers, and some entity would have to pay for this. That entity would be the owner. If the owner were a for-profit company, that company would always be tempted to use its ownership to co-opt innovation. But the owner wouldn’t necessarily have to be a for-profit company. The owner could also be a not-for-profit company, a government, or a network of individual contributors like those who create open-source software.


The tragedy of Richard II, part one : a newly authenticated play / by William Shakespeare ; edited, introduced and with variorum notes by Michael Egan


Lewiston, N.Y. : Edwin Mellen Press, c2006

  At present state-owned South African Airways and privately owned Comair are the only noteworthy scheduled passenger operators

Lex column: Baidu mixed
Baidu began to be the impact of the smaller competitors, profit margins may be affected. Baidu earnings growth rate is still more than twice that of Google, plus on the Chinese Internet, there is still much room for development, it is still a noteworthy technology shares.

"The penalty imposed today reflects the historic proportions of Raj Rajaratnam's illegal conduct and its impact on the integrity of our markets," said Robert S. Khuzami, the S.E.C.'s head of enforcement.

Legal experts say the S.E.C. fine against Mr. Rajaratnam is noteworthy because in many cases judges will not impose such substantial civil penalties against a defendant who has already been sentenced and ordered to pay stiff criminal fines.

Notable variorum editions

A variorum of the Bible has been produced at various times in history and of various scopes. Documenting each line of text with all variants in wording, from all known source documents, presented chronologically, helps translators of the Bible establish primacy and prevalence of various line readings.
There have also been noteworthy variorums of the works of William Shakespeare, including the readings of all quartos and folios; the textual decisions, or choices, of past editors; and a compilation of all critical notes. Variorum editions help editors and scholars understand the historical evolution of the Shakespeare texts, as well as to decode dubious lines and decide upon most likely authorial intent.
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, with its tree like model of branching common descent, has become the unifying theory of the life sciences. The theory explains the diversity of living organisms and their adaptation to the environment. On the centenary of the publication of The Origin of Species the University of Pennsylvania Press published a variorum.[1] The Origin of Species produced a revolution in the conceptual framework of biology, history, theology, and philosophy. During his lifetime the book went through six editions with extensive changes. The text became a third larger, with numerous parts rewritten five times.
There is also a variorum of the Leaves of Grass. Walt Whitman produced either six or nine editions during his lifetime. The New York University Press produced a variorum in 1980 of these various editions.[2]
The James Strachey translation of Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams in volumes four and five of The Standard Edition of The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud collates eight editions.

var·i·o·rum (vâr'ē-ôr'əm, -ōr'-, văr'-) pronunciation
集註的, 集不同版本而成之版本的, 集註本, 集不同版本而成之版本
  1. An edition of the works of an author with notes by various scholars or editors.
  2. An edition containing various versions of a text.
Of or relating to a variorum edition or text.

[From Latin (ēditiō cum notīs) variōrum, (edition with the notes) of various persons, genitive pl. of varius, various.]



  • worth paying attention to; interesting or significant:noteworthy features [with clause]:it is noteworthy that no one at the Bank has accepted responsibility for the failure


[形]〈物・事などが〉注目に値する;目だつ, 顕著な, 著しい.

Exaptation, co-option, and preadaptation are related terms referring to shifts in the function of a trait during evolution. For example, a trait can evolve because it served one particular function, but subsequently it may come to serve another. Exaptations are common in both anatomy and behaviour. Bird feathers are a classic example: initially these may have evolved for temperature regulation, but later were adapted for flight. Interest in exaptation relates to both the process and products of evolution: the process that creates complex traits and the products (functions, anatomical structures, biochemicals, etc) that may be imperfectly developed.[1]

 One way is by co-opting your antagonist's issue. If, for example, you disagree with
Michael Moore's demand for single-payer universal health care, clashing with him head-on
is probably not the best approach. Instead, understand why he's getting traction with
middle-class America and small business owners: because he holds out the prospect of
lower health care costs. Adopt that as your goal and propose an alternative road for getting
there. Rather than be negative, give Moore's campaign a nod and treat it with a trace of
indulgence – his heart is in the right place.


kouɑ'pt | -ɔ'pt
1 〈現在の会員・委員などが〉〈新会員・新委員を〉(…に)選ぶ;〈人に〉(自分への)支持を頼む((as, into, onto ...)).
2 〈反対者を〉(団体・運動などに)吸収する;〈他のグループのスローガンなどを〉採用する.
co-óp・ta・tive, co-óp・tive


1Appoint to membership of a committee or other body by invitation of the existing members:the committee may co-opt additional members for special purposes

1.1Divert to or use in a role different from the usualor original one:[WITH OBJECT AND INFINITIVE]: social scientists were co-opted to work with the development agencies

1.2Adopt (an idea or policy) for one’s own use:the green parties have had most of their ideas co-opted by bigger parties


mid 17th century: from Latin cooptare, from co-'together' + optare 'choose'.


co-op • ta • tion
kòuɑptéiʃən | -ɔp-
1 (会員同士による)新会員[新委員]の選挙, 互選;(組織への)反対者の取り込み.
2 (対立グループによる)乗っ取り, 支配. (またco-óption)


In health care, self-care is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual control, deliberate and self-initiated. Some place self-care on a continuum with healthcare providers at the opposite end to self-care. In modern medicine, preventive medicine aligns most closely with self-care.

Self-care - Wikipedia