2016年4月20日 星期三

stoneware, vitrify, Celadon, pottery, terra-cotta, patina, sarcophagi,


The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art 新增了 3 張相片
Tonight’s Art Moment is this group of Chinese Celadons from the Song Dynasty including a bowl, bottle and reliquary. Celadon is a European word denoting a group of stonewares with green, greenish-blue or lavender glazes that represent the most refined of all Song ceramics. In these wares it is the deep, sometimes multi-layered glaze and elegance of form rather than decoration that lend the pieces their appeal. This focus on form, color and texture at the expense of decoration is unprecedented in the history of ceramics and reflects a remarkable sensitivity on the part of the potters and their patrons. The tone of the green depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are the amount of iron and titanium present in the glaze and the firing conditions of the kiln. Kilns which used an oxygen-rich atmosphere produced more olive-toned wares, while those in which the atmosphere was oxygen-starved tended to produce a more bluish color. On view in Gallery 229.




Ceramic and porcelain stoneware tiles for interior and exterior architecture since 1983

Roman France
By ELAINE SCIOLINO
From amphitheaters and aqueducts to sarcophagi and statuary left behind by the conquerors, a hunt for what was once Gaul reveals traces of Roman civilization throughout the countryside.





During the past 10 years, a substantial entrepreneurial middle class has developed. But, as in Mr. Brezhnev´s time, oil money was the patina covering all faults.

terra-cotta


Louis Sullivan’s 1895 Guarantee Building is a classic of early skyscraper design decorated in intricate floral terra-cotta tiles.





美國紐約大都會博物館有 terracotta 版本


Eco protestor puts masks on China's terracotta warriors
AFP -
LONDON (AFP) — An environmental protestor put anti-pollution face masks on at least two of China's terracotta warriors at an exhibition in London, ...



stoneware

ˈstəʊnwɛː/
noun
  1. a type of pottery which is impermeable and partly vitrified but opaque.
    "a stoneware jar"


[名詞] (火+石;石胎瓷)器せっき:堅く不透明であるが熔化している粘土製品.
━━ [形容詞] 器の.


vitrify

音節

vit • ri • fy 発音

vítrəfài
  1. [他動詞], [自動詞] (-fied,vit・ri・fy・ing)
  2. 1 〈結晶質を[が]〉ガラス質に変える[変わる].
  3. 2 ガラス状にする[なる];磁器化する,熔化ようかする
    • vitrified bricks
    • 焼固れんが(焼成中にほとんど,または完全に磁器化したれんが).

vitrified bricks

焼固れんが(焼成中にほとんど,または完全に磁器化したれんが).

celadon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celadon
stoneware的燒成溫度介於陶、瓷之間,材質不同,所以將celadon 翻譯成"青瓷"只是傳統說法。
青瓷英語:Celadon)是表面施有青色瓷器。青瓷色調的形成,主要是胎釉中含有一定量的氧化鐵,在還原焰氣氛中焙燒所致。但是有些青瓷因為含鐵量不純化,還原氣氛並不充足,色調便會呈現黃色或者黃褐色。獨特的灰綠色青瓷釉是釉胎在燒結中從三氧化二鐵轉換成一氧化鐵氧化鐵化合物轉換的結果。[1]

音節
 
cel • a • don
 
発音
 
sélədɑ`n,-dn|-dɔ`n
  1. [名詞]
  2. 1 (中国製の)青磁(器).
  3. 2 緑または青味を帯びた単色釉薬ゆうやく製品.
  4. 3 (また céladon grèen)青磁色,薄い灰緑色.
  1. ━━ [形容詞] 青磁色の.

hc在Simon U的讀書筆記,無非是S. Sontag的「假仙(Kamp)」……
HC把「麥田」寫成「賣田」,略似將你談的『亞當斯(Henry Adams)之教育』*看成亞當 斯密(Adam SMITH)-- 我1978年造訪過 Adam SMITH的大學及該城的陶瓷研究所,不過我2005年,看了Discovery 介紹中國陶藝,才知道 CELADON 是法文(Definition: Cel"a*don, n. [F.] A pale sea-green color; also, porcelain or fine pottery of this tint.(Webster's 1913 Dictionary)) [語源]1768. フランスの作家 H.d'Urfé(1568-1625)作の物語 L'Astrée の中の人物名 Céladon にちなむ

Etymology[edit]

The term "celadon" for the pottery's pale jade-green glaze was coined by European connoisseurs of the wares. One theory is that the term first appeared in France in the 17th century and that it is named after the shepherd Celadon in Honoré d'Urfé's French pastoral romance, L'Astrée (1627), who wore pale green ribbons. (D'Urfe, in turn, borrowed his character from Ovid's Metamorphoses V.210.) Another theory is that the term is a corruption of the name of Saladin (Salah ad-Din), the Ayyubid Sultan, who in 1171 sent forty pieces of the ceramic to Nur ad-Din Zengi, Sultan of Syria.[7] Yet a third theory is that the word derives from the Sanskrit sila and dhara, which mean "green" and "stone" respectively.


ter・ra-cot・ta



━━ n., a. テラコッタ(細工) ((赤土素焼の花びん・像など)); その色(の).

n.n. - 陶瓦, 赤土陶器, 赤土色
    1. A hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction.
    2. Ceramic wares made of this material.
  1. A brownish orange.
[Italian : terra, earth (from Latin terra; see terrace) + cotta, baked, cooked (from Latin cocta, feminine past participle of coquere, to cook).]



This article is about the waterproof ceramic material and its uses. For the JVM clustering software, see Terracotta Cluster.
A terra cotta sculpture of Hanuman in India. The reddish colour is due to iron oxide in the source clay. Clays with low iron content can result in paler colours on firing, ranging from white to yellow.

Terra cotta designs outside the Kantaji Temple.


Glazed building decoration at the Forbidden City, Beijing, China.


The Etruscan "Sarcophagus of the Spouses", at the National Etruscan Museum.

The Bell Edison Telephone Building, Birmingham, England.


The Natural History Museum in London has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. The carvings represent the contents of the Museum.

Terra cotta (Italian: "baked earth") is a ceramic. Its uses include vessels, water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction. The term is also used to refer to items made out of this material and to its natural, brownish orange color.

Production and properties

An appropriate refined clay is partially dried and cast, molded, or hand worked into the desired shape. After further thorough drying it is placed in a kiln, or atop combustable material in a pit, and then fired. After pit firing the hot ware is covered with sand to cool, and after kiln firing the kiln is slowly cooled. When unglazed, the material will not be waterproof, but it is suitable for in-ground use to carry pressurized water (an archaic use), for garden ware, and sculpture or building decoration in tropical environments, and for oil containers, oil lamps, or ovens. Most other uses such as for table ware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments require that the material be glazed. Terra cotta, if uncracked, will ring if lightly struck, but not as brightly as will ware fired at higher temperature, which is called stoneware. The fired material is relatively weak compared to stoneware. Owing to the low firing temperatures it is possible to use lead-containing glazes, which although once widely used are now recognized as producing both health and environmental hazards.
The unglazed color after firing can vary widely, but most common clays contain enough iron to cause an orange, orangish red, or brownish orange color, with this range including various colors described as "terra cotta". Other colors include yellow, gray, and pink.

History

Terra cotta has been used throughout history for sculpture and pottery, as well as bricks and roof shingles. In ancient times, the first clay sculptures were dried (baked) in the sun after being formed. Later, they were placed in the ashes of open hearths to harden, and finally kilns were used, similar to those used for pottery today. However only after firing to high temperature would it be classed as a ceramic material. The most famous terra cotta statues are those of the terra cotta warriors in China.

Users

Significant uses of terra cotta have included Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Army of China, built in 210209 BC. Mass producers of mold-cast and fired terra cotta figurines were also the ancient Greeks of Tanagra. French sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse made many terra cotta pieces, but possibly the most famous is The Abduction of Hippodameia depicting the Greek mythological scene of a centaur kidnapping Hippodameia on her wedding day. American architect Louis Sullivan is well-known for his elaborate glazed terra cotta ornamentation, designs that would have been impossible to execute in any other medium. Terra cotta and tile were used extensively in the town buildings of Victorian Birmingham, England.
Precolonial West African sculpture also made extensive use of terra cotta[1]. The regions most recognized for producing terra cotta art in this part of the world include the Nok culture of central and north-central Nigeria, the Ife/Benin cultural axis in western and southern Nigeria (also noted for its exceptionally naturalistic sculpture), and the Igbo culture area of eastern Nigeria, which excelled in terra cotta pottery. These related, but separate, traditions also gave birth to elaborate schools of bronze and brass sculpture in the area.

Advantages in sculpture

As compared to bronze sculpture, terra cotta uses a far simpler process for creating the finished work. Reusable mold-making techniques may be used for series production. Compared to marble sculpture and other stonework the finished product is far lighter and may be further glazed to produce objects with color or durable simulations of metal patina. Robust durable works for outdoor use require greater thickness and so will be heavier, with more care needed in the drying of the unfinished piece to prevent cracking as the material shrinks. Structural considerations are similar to those required for stone sculpture.

Color

Terra cotta is a color between orange and brown.
"遠溯古典文明,它是斑駁的「綠」鏽(patina),令國之重器由「金」變成「青」。"

pat・i・na



━━ n. 緑青(ろくしょう); 古色; 寂(さび); (人の)貫禄(かんろく).


sarcophagus

n., pl. -gi (-jī') or -gus·es.
A stone coffin, often inscribed or decorated with sculpture.
[Latin, from Greek sarkophagos, coffin, from (lithos) sarkophagos, limestone that consumed the flesh of corpses laid in it : sarx, sark-, flesh + -phagos, -phagous.]
WORD HISTORY Sarcophagus, our term for a stone coffin located above ground and often decorated, has a macabre origin befitting a macabre thing. The word comes to us from Latin and Greek, having been derived in Greek from sarx, “flesh,” and phagein, “to eat.” The Greek word sarkophagos meant “eating flesh,” and in the phrase lithos (“stone”) sarkophagos it denoted a limestone that was thought to decompose the flesh of corpses placed in it. Used by itself as a noun the Greek term came to mean “coffin.” The term was carried over into Latin, where sarcophagus was used in the phrase lapis (“stone”) sarcophagus, referring to the same stone as in Greek. Sarcophagus used as a noun in Latin meant “coffin of any material.” This Latin word was borrowed into English, first being recorded in 1601 with reference to the flesh-consuming stone and then in 1705 with reference to a stone coffin.

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