Ceramic and porcelain stoneware tiles for interior and exterior architecture since 1983
By ELAINE SCIOLINO
From amphitheaters and aqueducts to sarcophagi and statuary left behind by the conquerors, a hunt for what was once Gaul reveals traces of Roman civilization throughout the countryside.
During the past 10 years, a substantial entrepreneurial middle class has developed. But, as in Mr. Brezhnev´s time, oil money was the patina covering all faults.
Louis Sullivan’s 1895 Guarantee Building is a classic of early skyscraper design decorated in intricate floral terra-cotta tiles.
美國紐約大都會博物館有 terracotta 版本
Eco protestor puts masks on China's terracotta warriors
LONDON (AFP) — An environmental protestor put anti-pollution face masks on at least two of China's terracotta warriors at an exhibition in London, ...
━━ [形容詞] 器の.
vit • ri • fy 発音
hc在Simon U的讀書筆記，無非是S. Sontag的「假仙（Kamp）」……
HC把「麥田」寫成「賣田」，略似將你談的『亞當斯（Henry Adams）之教育』*看成亞當 斯密（Adam SMITH）-- 我1978年造訪過 Adam SMITH的大學及該城的陶瓷研究所，
不過我2005年，看了Discovery 介紹中國陶藝，才知道 CELADON 是法文（Definition: Cel"a*don, n. [F.] A pale sea-green color; also, porcelain or fine pottery of this tint.（Webster's 1913 Dictionary）） ［語源］1768. フランスの作家 H.d'Urfé(1568-1625)作の物語 L'Astrée の中の人物名 Céladon にちなむ
The term "celadon" for the pottery's pale jade-green glaze was coined by European connoisseurs of the wares. One theory is that the term first appeared in France in the 17th century and that it is named after the shepherd Celadon in Honoré d'Urfé's French pastoral romance, L'Astrée (1627), who wore pale green ribbons. (D'Urfe, in turn, borrowed his character from Ovid's Metamorphoses V.210.) Another theory is that the term is a corruption of the name of Saladin (Salah ad-Din), the Ayyubid Sultan, who in 1171 sent forty pieces of the ceramic to Nur ad-Din Zengi, Sultan of Syria. Yet a third theory is that the word derives from the Sanskrit sila and dhara, which mean "green" and "stone" respectively.
n.n. - 陶瓦, 赤土陶器, 赤土色
- A hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction.
- Ceramic wares made of this material.
- A brownish orange.
[Italian : terra, earth (from Latin terra; see terrace) + cotta, baked, cooked (from Latin cocta, feminine past participle of coquere, to cook).]
This article is about the waterproof ceramic material and its uses. For the JVM clustering software, see Terracotta Cluster.
A terra cotta sculpture of Hanuman in India. The reddish colour is due to iron oxide in the source clay. Clays with low iron content can result in paler colours on firing, ranging from white to yellow.
Terra cotta designs outside the Kantaji Temple.
Glazed building decoration at the Forbidden City, Beijing, China.
The Etruscan "Sarcophagus of the Spouses", at the National Etruscan Museum.
The Bell Edison Telephone Building, Birmingham, England.
The Natural History Museum in London has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. The carvings represent the contents of the Museum.
Terra cotta (Italian: "baked earth") is a ceramic. Its uses include vessels, water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction. The term is also used to refer to items made out of this material and to its natural, brownish orange color.
Production and propertiesAn appropriate refined clay is partially dried and cast, molded, or hand worked into the desired shape. After further thorough drying it is placed in a kiln, or atop combustable material in a pit, and then fired. After pit firing the hot ware is covered with sand to cool, and after kiln firing the kiln is slowly cooled. When unglazed, the material will not be waterproof, but it is suitable for in-ground use to carry pressurized water (an archaic use), for garden ware, and sculpture or building decoration in tropical environments, and for oil containers, oil lamps, or ovens. Most other uses such as for table ware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments require that the material be glazed. Terra cotta, if uncracked, will ring if lightly struck, but not as brightly as will ware fired at higher temperature, which is called stoneware. The fired material is relatively weak compared to stoneware. Owing to the low firing temperatures it is possible to use lead-containing glazes, which although once widely used are now recognized as producing both health and environmental hazards.
The unglazed color after firing can vary widely, but most common clays contain enough iron to cause an orange, orangish red, or brownish orange color, with this range including various colors described as "terra cotta". Other colors include yellow, gray, and pink.
HistoryTerra cotta has been used throughout history for sculpture and pottery, as well as bricks and roof shingles. In ancient times, the first clay sculptures were dried (baked) in the sun after being formed. Later, they were placed in the ashes of open hearths to harden, and finally kilns were used, similar to those used for pottery today. However only after firing to high temperature would it be classed as a ceramic material. The most famous terra cotta statues are those of the terra cotta warriors in China.
UsersSignificant uses of terra cotta have included Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Army of China, built in 210–209 BC. Mass producers of mold-cast and fired terra cotta figurines were also the ancient Greeks of Tanagra. French sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse made many terra cotta pieces, but possibly the most famous is The Abduction of Hippodameia depicting the Greek mythological scene of a centaur kidnapping Hippodameia on her wedding day. American architect Louis Sullivan is well-known for his elaborate glazed terra cotta ornamentation, designs that would have been impossible to execute in any other medium. Terra cotta and tile were used extensively in the town buildings of Victorian Birmingham, England.
Precolonial West African sculpture also made extensive use of terra cotta. The regions most recognized for producing terra cotta art in this part of the world include the Nok culture of central and north-central Nigeria, the Ife/Benin cultural axis in western and southern Nigeria (also noted for its exceptionally naturalistic sculpture), and the Igbo culture area of eastern Nigeria, which excelled in terra cotta pottery. These related, but separate, traditions also gave birth to elaborate schools of bronze and brass sculpture in the area.
Advantages in sculptureAs compared to bronze sculpture, terra cotta uses a far simpler process for creating the finished work. Reusable mold-making techniques may be used for series production. Compared to marble sculpture and other stonework the finished product is far lighter and may be further glazed to produce objects with color or durable simulations of metal patina. Robust durable works for outdoor use require greater thickness and so will be heavier, with more care needed in the drying of the unfinished piece to prevent cracking as the material shrinks. Structural considerations are similar to those required for stone sculpture.
ColorTerra cotta is a color between orange and brown.
n., pl. -gi (-jī') or -gus·es.
A stone coffin, often inscribed or decorated with sculpture.
[Latin, from Greek sarkophagos, coffin, from (lithos) sarkophagos, limestone that consumed the flesh of corpses laid in it : sarx, sark-, flesh + -phagos, -phagous.]
WORD HISTORY Sarcophagus, our term for a stone coffin located above ground and often decorated, has a macabre origin befitting a macabre thing. The word comes to us from Latin and Greek, having been derived in Greek from sarx, “flesh,” and phagein, “to eat.” The Greek word sarkophagos meant “eating flesh,” and in the phrase lithos (“stone”) sarkophagos it denoted a limestone that was thought to decompose the flesh of corpses placed in it. Used by itself as a noun the Greek term came to mean “coffin.” The term was carried over into Latin, where sarcophagus was used in the phrase lapis (“stone”) sarcophagus, referring to the same stone as in Greek. Sarcophagus used as a noun in Latin meant “coffin of any material.” This Latin word was borrowed into English, first being recorded in 1601 with reference to the flesh-consuming stone and then in 1705 with reference to a stone coffin.