2016年5月6日 星期五

freedom, libertarianism, hipsterish, bon vivant, liberalism, illiberalism, same-sex marriage, authoritarian, soft on ,take liberties, liberty into liberality, trance, goofball, goof,liberties, libertarianism, Jim Crow, Lost Cause, American Civil War

Central Europe once aimed to integrate into the EU. Not any more. Its turn towards illiberalism creates problems




Rand Paul's Mixed Inheritance

By SAM TANENHAUS and JIM RUTENBERG

As Rand Paul tries to broaden his appeal, he is also trying to take libertarianism, an ideology long on the fringes of American politics, into the mainstream.

I went one day, with a lady artist, to the Bodkin Art 
Gallery in Moscow. In one of the rooms, on a table, lay a 
book of coloured pictures, issued in Paris and supplied, I 
believe, to private subscribers only. The pictures were 
admirably executed, but represented scenes in the private 
cabinets of a restaurant. Sexual indulgence was the chief 
subject of each picture. Women extravagantly dressed and 
partly undressed, women exposing their legs and breasts to 
men in evening dress; men and women taking liberties 
with each other, or dancing the " can-can," etc., etc.


Tributes are being paid at home and abroad to Baroness Thatcher after her death at the age of 87.
David Cameron said she had been a "great Briton" while US President Barack Obama called her a "great champion of freedom and liberty".


Sexy iPhone App Funds a Startup: The true story of how one goofball iPhone app saved a company and funded a new MMO game. (Darren Gladstone, PC World)

Just ahead of the trio is a man on a bicycle coming their way. The expression on his face seems to say, "Huh? This goofball is the Hayao Miyazaki?! Well, I never."







You’re Checked Out, but Your Brain Is Tuned In
By BENEDICT CAREY
Research suggests that falling into a numbed trance allows the brain to recast the outside world in ways that can be productive and creative.


By DAVID POGUE
I've always been an iMovie nut. This humble video-editing program from Apple, in its way, launched my entire career of making weekly goofball tech videos. For three years, I made them all by myself, on the cheap, with a camcorder and iMovie.
Other goofs were unintentional: as Apollo 13 circles the moon and loses the signal with mission control, the ship is seen going into the moon's shadow.


Freed critics not a sign China is soft on dissent
The Associated Press
BEIJING (AP) — Despite recent releases of high-profile critics, China's authoritarian government seems as determined as ever to silence dissidents and run roughshod over their thin legal protections, activists and academics said Monday. ...


Now, obviously there are worse diagnoses than gout, yet for someone who still likes to think of himself as a nimble-footed, hipsterish bon vivant, as someone who thinks of himself as a “good walker” and who (for Pete’s sake) has written a book about the significance and multiple meanings of pedestrianism, it’s pretty devastating.


hipster
The noun has one meaning:
Meaning #1: someone who rejects the established culture; advocates extreme liberalism in politics and lifestyle
Synonyms: hippiehippyflower child

n. Slang.
One who is exceptionally aware of or interested in the latest trends and tastes, especially a devotee of modern jazz.

WordNet: bon vivant
The noun has one meaning: Meaning #1: a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)

soft on

1. Attracted to or emotionally involved with, as in He's been soft on Margaret for years. This usage was first recorded in 1840.
2. Not stern, lenient, especially too much so. For example, Some think the court has been soft on violent protesters. This usage was first recorded in 1883.



Wall Street's Influence on Same-Sex Marriage: The passage of the same-sex marriage bill in New York State relied on money and influence from a small core of libertarians from the hedge fund world. In a DealBook video, Evelyn M. Rusli speaks to Michael Barbaro, reporter for The New York Times, about what he discovered when he examined the money behind the issue.

libertarian(lĭb'ər-târ'ē-ənpronunciation
n.
  1. One who advocates maximizing individual rights and minimizing the role of the state.
  2. One who believes in free will.
[From LIBERTY.]
libertarian lib'er·tar'i·an adj.
libertarianism lib'er·tar'i·an·ism n.
  1. [名詞]
  2. 1 (特に思想・行動についての)自由擁護者,自由論者.
  3. 2 自由意志論者. cf. NECESSITARIAN

take liberties

  • behave in an unduly familiar or easy manner towards someone or something:you’ve taken too many liberties with me
treat something freely, without strict faithfulness to the facts or to an original:the scriptwriter has taken few liberties with the original narrative

讀這篇 起碼要近一步去認識 libertarianism, Jim Crow, Lost Cause, American Civil War
等字眼

http://www.answers.com/topic/american-civil-war

libertarianism
Political philosophy that stresses personal liberty. Libertarians believe that individuals should have complete freedom of action, provided their actions do not infringe on the freedom of others. Libertarianism's distrust of government is rooted in 19th-century anarchism. Typical libertarians oppose not only the income tax and other government impositions but also programs seen by many as beneficial, such as social security and the postal service. In the U.S. their views often crosscut traditional party boundaries (e.g., libertarians oppose gun control, as do most Republicans, but support the legalization of prohibited drugs, as do some liberal Democrats). Among the thinkers embraced by libertarians are Henry David Thoreau and Ayn Rand.

Libertarianism (Latin: liber, "free") is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal objective. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment.

Wikipedia

自由意志主義(Libertarianism),又常被譯為自由人主義放任自由主義自由意志論自由至上主義自由至上論。自由意志主義是一種主張只要個人不侵犯他人的同等自由,個人應該享有絕對的自由以其自身和財產從事任何活動的政治哲學[1]。自由意志主義者的基本準則為:任何人類的互動行為都應該出於雙方的自願和同意,任何利用暴力或詐欺手段侵犯他人權利和財產的舉動都是違反了這種準則。因此除了對付他人先行侵略的反擊外,自由意志主義者反對任何形式的暴力行為。「自由意志主義」肯定的不是自由本身,而是某種類型的自由,其範圍是由自我所有論(the thesis of self-ownership)所界定的。[2]
Before Milton Friedman was earning plaudits as an economic genius, he...
ALTERNET.ORG

liberty[lib・er・ty] 

  • 発音記号[líbərti]

[名](複-ties)
1 [U](圧政・暴力的支配からの)自由(⇔captivity);(外国の支配からの)自由, 独立(independence)
the land of liberty
自由の国.
2 [U]
(1) (業務・拘束・幽閉などからの)自由, 解放, 釈放, 放免, (行動・言論・思想などの)自由, 権利
civil liberty
市民の自由
liberty of expressionthought
表現[思想]の自由
The prisoner soon regained his liberty.
囚人はまもなく釈放された.
▼freedomを用いることもできる.
(2) 自由気ままな[無遠慮な]行為. ▼この意味では[C]に準じた扱いが可.
(3) 《哲学》(運命などからの人間の行動や意志・選択の)自由.
3 [U](船員・海軍軍人に与えられる)上陸許可, 賜暇;その期間(▼ふつう48時間以内;長期の場合はleave);(一般に)許可
grant a boy liberty to go out
少年に外出を許す.
4 ((通例the 〜))出入り[使用]の自由[権利]
He was given the liberty of the house.
その家へ自由に出入りすることを許されていた.
5 ((しばしば-ties))(言葉・行動の)勝手, 気まま, (…するという)無礼(な言動)((of doing, to do)). ▼ふつうtakeとともに用いる
I'm taking the liberty to write [=of writingto you.
失礼をも顧みず[勝手ながら]一筆差し上げます.
6 ((-ties))(公認された)特権;特典.
at liberty
(1) 自由で, 解放されて;監禁されていない
set a prisoner at liberty
囚人を釈放する.
(2) 〈人が〉暇で, 用がなくて;失業して;〈物が〉使用されていない.
(3) ((beと共に))((形式))〈人が〉好きなよう[勝手]に(…)してよい((to do))
You are at liberty to leave.
もう行ってもよろしい.
take liberties [a liberty] with ...
(1) ((古風))〈人に〉なれなれしくする.
(2) 〈規則・資料・事実などを〉勝手に変える[いじくる].
(3) …を自分勝手に扱う.
[ラテン語lībertās(liber自由な+-TY2=自由であること)]


林博文專欄-美國上演新內戰

  • 2011-04-20 中國時報

  這一陣子,美國文 字媒體和電視都在推出南北戰爭一百五十周年紀念專輯。按正史記載,內戰第一槍(應是第一砲)是在一八六一年四月十二日開打,堅持脫離合眾國的南卡羅萊納民 兵向查爾斯頓港外的森姆特堡小島開砲,島上有八十多名聯邦駐軍。兩天後,森姆特堡陷落,長達四年的南北血腥廝殺於焉開始。

  人類史上,凡是內戰(或稱兄弟鬩牆)都比一般國與國之間的戰爭還殘忍,死傷更多。美國南北戰爭就死了六十二萬五千人,如以目前美國人口三億來換算,在今天 即等於死了六百萬人。一九四五至一九四九年中國內戰(中共稱為第二階段國共內戰),大陸出版的一些史書說死了約一千一百萬人,有些則說「殲滅國民黨軍八百 零七萬人」。一九五○年至一九五三年韓戰,雙方軍民至少死了將近三百萬人。遠的不提,十餘年來非洲幾個國家內戰(或內亂),動輒死數十萬人。

  美國內戰打得如此猛烈、凶殘,如此充滿恨意,一百五十年前凌晨南卡州分離主義民兵在短短兩天之內,竟向彈丸小島森姆特堡發射三千多發砲彈 (所幸無人死亡)。令人想到,一九五八年的八二三砲戰,共軍向大小金門發射五、六十萬發砲彈。美國內戰雖早已煙消雲散,遍布蓋提斯堡和其他古戰場的大砲亦 已銹蝕無聲,但從廣義的角度來說,那場內戰其實還沒有打完,甚至還沒有結束。一百五十年前內戰爆發時,總統是勉強解放黑奴的林肯,一百五十年後美國出現了 黑人總統,許許多多白人跳腳受不了,再高喊內戰前的「州權至上」、「聯邦不要管地方的事」等口號。連提倡「自由至上主 義」(libertarianism)的極右茶黨都大顯身手,使美國的政治版圖變了顏色。

 內戰於一八六五年停火 後,一百四十六年來已有六萬五千多本相關著作問世。在世界出 版史上,從來沒有一個主題在一百多年內竟有如此眾多的書籍出版,幾乎等於一天出一本。儘管浩如煙海的內戰史書充斥於世,但美國專業史家和民間史家、北方史 家及南方史家、白人史家與黑人史家,對內戰起因、結果及其意義的看法,竟南轅北轍,沒有定論亦乏共識。在紀念內戰開打一百五十年的今天,各派學者仍在開足 火力,爭論不休。

 著有《林肯時代》的南卡州史家歐維爾.佛農.波頓(Orville Vernon Burton)及大批南方史家認為,內戰乃源於北方工業州與南方農業州之爭、聯邦與州權之爭、關稅之爭和兩種不同文化之爭。這種看法刻意忽略了黑奴問題, 而黑奴(當時美國有四百萬黑奴,等於今天的洛杉磯人口)和黑奴制度的存廢,才是內戰爆發的真正原因,也是最主要原因。所幸最近在《時代》周刊、《紐約時 報》、《今日美國報》和《史密桑尼》雜誌等主流刊物,都有史家強調內戰就是為了黑奴的存廢。他們指出,同情南方分離主義的史家一百多年來都不願面對史實與 史因,而企圖以偏概全或抹煞事實。也有些善意的正統史家表示,南方史家與政論家故意「忘記」─忘掉那一段美國史上極不光彩的蓄奴時代,其目的就是要和過去 取得和解,因為「忘記也是和解的一部分」。

 不過,在廢奴之爭裡面,亦涵蓋不少極複雜的因素,並沒有哪一方是完全 正義的,百分之百對的。如高舉廢奴大旗的北方諸州與世界各國貿易賺 大錢,當時華爾街和北方大亨賺最多的是向海外賣棉花,棉花收入竟占了美國貿易收入的四成,而在南方種植棉花的人就是成千成萬的黑奴。但是蓄奴制遠在建國開 始就是美國的良心負擔,同時也是凸顯美國人民(特別是開國先賢)雙重道德標準、言偽而善、表裡不一的偽君子心態。蓄奴問題在一七八七年召開費城憲政會議時 即已是一顆「不定時炸彈」;其時「奴隸主」華盛頓、傑佛遜等人都沒有或不願解決這個問題。曾說過:〈沒有書就活不下去〉(I cannot live without books)的傑佛遜養了一百多個,並與女黑奴莎莉.黑明思(Sally Hemings)生了一或二個孩子。史家強調,這批開國人物心裡知道他們留下一個極燙手的洋芋,他們希望後代領導人能解決黑奴問題,但這批「袞袞諸公」絕 沒想到八十四年後,他們的傳人竟為黑奴問題而打得你死我活,生靈塗炭!
 內戰解決了分裂爭論,而迫使要分家的十一個州不情願地回到合眾 國。蓄奴制廢除了,但南方一些地區仍繼續保存殘留的黑奴達三十幾年之久。儘 管國會通過憲法第十三條、第十四條和第十五條修正案以保障黑人權益,但在內戰結束後的所謂「重建時期」和遍行南方的吉姆.克勞(Jim Crow)種族歧視,仍使黑人無法翻身。直至詹森總統時代一九六四年國會通過民權法案、一九六五年通過投票權利法案,黑人始享有完整的公民資格與權益。

  美國是個極其矛盾的國家,有先進的科學技術,也有非常保守、落伍反動的社會思潮。這一陣子共和黨裡的極右派和茶黨,藉內戰開戰一百五十周 年之際,大肆鼓吹反聯邦(主要是反歐巴馬)、反大政府、反移民,甚至要求今後的總統候選人必須提出出生證明(也是針對歐巴馬)。南方史家亦在這個時候為他 們的老祖宗當年輸掉「失敗的事業」(Lost Cause)而發生吼聲。美國內戰已沒有硝煙,但意識形態之爭卻方興未艾!



goof
Slang.
n.
  1. An incompetent, foolish, or stupid person.
  2. A careless mistake; a slip.

v., goofed, goof·ing, goofs. v.intr.
  1. To make a silly mistake; blunder: goofed up by turning right instead of left.
  2. To waste or kill time: goofed around at the mall.
  3. To tease or make fun of someone: goofed on her younger brother.
v.tr.
To spoil, as through clumsiness; bungle. Usually used with up: goof up a job.

[Possibly alteration of dialectal goff, fool, from obsolete French goffe, stupid.]
goofball
n.
  1. A foolish, incompetent, or stupid person.
  2. A barbiturate or tranquilizer pill, especially when taken for nonmedical purposes.【俚】鎮靜劑藥丸
adj.
Silly or outlandish: “Underneath his goofball braggadocio lies a kind of purity” (David Ansen).


Liberalism triumphed on the principle that the best government is that
which governs the least; now for all the western nations political
wisdom has recast this ideal of liberty into liberality. The shift has
thrown the vocabulary into disorder…p.688

「政治『智慧』卻已將這份自由(liberty)重鑄成慷慨(liberality)之意…….」台北鄭譯本,p. 1155

出於明智的政治考慮把放任自由改變為開明公允…..」大陸本,p. 698

hc贊成台北本:

liberty



音節
lib • er • ty
発音
líbərti
レベル
大学入試程度
libertyの変化形
liberties (複数形)
libertyの慣用句
at liberty, take liberties with, (全2件)
[名](複-ties)
1 [U](圧政・暴力的支配からの)自由(⇔captivity);(外国の支配からの)自由, 独立(independence)
the land of liberty
自由の国.
2 [U]
(1) (業務・拘束・幽閉などからの)自由, 解放, 釈放, 放免, (行動・言論・思想などの)自由, 権利
civil liberty
市民の自由
liberty of expressionthought
表現[思想]の自由
The prisoner soon regained his liberty.
囚人はまもなく釈放された.
▼freedomを用いることもできる.
(2) 自由気ままな[無遠慮な]行為. ▼この意味では[C]に準じた扱いが可.
(3) 《哲学》(運命などからの人間の行動や意志・選択の)自由.
3 [U](船員・海軍軍人に与えられる)上陸許可, 賜暇;その期間(▼ふつう48時間以内;長期の場合はleave);(一般に)許可
grant a boy liberty to go out
少年に外出を許す.
4 ((通例the 〜))出入り[使用]の自由[権利]
He was given the liberty of the house.
その家へ自由に出入りすることを許されていた.
5 ((しばしば-ties))(言葉・行動の)勝手, 気まま, (…するという)無礼(な言動)((of doing, to do)). ▼ふつうtakeとともに用いる
I'm taking the liberty to write [=of writingto you.
失礼をも顧みず[勝手ながら]一筆差し上げます.
6 ((-ties))(公認された)特権;特典.
at liberty
(1) 自由で, 解放されて;監禁されていない
set a prisoner at liberty
囚人を釈放する.
(2) 〈人が〉暇で, 用がなくて;失業して;〈物が〉使用されていない.
(3) ((beと共に))((形式))〈人が〉好きなよう[勝手]に(…)してよい((to do))
You are at liberty to leave.
もう行ってもよろしい.
take liberties [a liberty] with ...
(1) ((古風))〈人に〉なれなれしくする.
(2) 〈規則・資料・事実などを〉勝手に変える[いじくる].
(3) …を自分勝手に扱う.
[ラテン語lībertās(liber自由な+-TY2=自由であること)]


Definition of liberty







noun (plural liberties)

  • 1the state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one’s way of life, behavior, or political views:compulsory retirement would interfere with individual liberty
  • (usually liberties) an instance of this; a right or privilege, especially a statutory one:the Bill of Rights was intended to secure basic civil liberties
  • the state of not being imprisoned or enslaved:people who have lost property or liberty without due process
  • (Liberty) the personification of liberty as a female figure.
  • 2the power or scope to act as one pleases:individuals should enjoy the liberty to pursue their own interests and preferences
  • Philosophy a person’s freedom from control by fate or necessity.
  • informal a presumptuous remark or action:how did he know what she was thinking?—it was a liberty!
  • Nautical shore leave granted to a sailor.







Phrases


at liberty

  • 1not imprisoned:he was at liberty for three months before he was recaptured
  • 2allowed or entitled to do something:competent adults are generally at liberty to refuse medical treatment

take liberties

  • 1behave in an unduly familiar manner toward a person:you’ve taken too many liberties with me
  • 2treat something freely, without strict faithfulness to the facts or to an original:the scriptwriter has taken few liberties with the original narrative

take the liberty

venture to do something without first asking permission:I have taken the liberty of submitting an idea to several of their research departments

Origin:

late Middle English: from Old French liberte, from Latin libertas, from liber 'free'

freedom


 
音節
free • dom
発音
fríːdəm
レベル
最重要
freedomの変化形
freedoms (複数形)
[名][U]
1 自由(な状態);政治的独立, 国家の独立, 自主
give a slave his freedom
奴隷を解放する.
2 (行動などの)自由((of ...));(…する)自由((to do))
religious freedoms
(各種の)宗教的な自由
freedom of the press
報道の自由
freedom of expression
表現の自由
freedom of choice
選択の自由;妊娠中絶は個人の権利だという主張
freedom of conscience
信教の自由
have freedom to do what one likes
好きなことを自由にできる
the freedom of the seas
公海の自由航行権
Freedom of speech is not liberty to lie.
言論の自由とは勝手にうそをついてよいことではない.
[類語]freedomとlibertyはしばしば同義に使うが, freedomは束縛されない自由, libertyは束縛から解放された自由.
3 (都市・団体などの)特権;市民の自由.
4 (義務・規制などからの)脱却, 解放, 解除, 免除;(…が)ないこと((from ...))
freedomfrom fear
恐怖からの解放.
5 (動作・行動の)安易さ, 気軽さ;(態度・話しぶりの)率直さ;大胆さ;無礼, 無遠慮, なれなれしさ, 気まま
speak with freedom
腹蔵なく話す
takeuse] freedoms with a person
人になれなれしくする.
6 ((the 〜))(…の)出入り[使用, 利用]の自由((of ...)).
7 《哲学》自由;《カント哲学》自律, 自己決定.

Definition of freedom







noun

  • the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint:we do have some freedom of choice he talks of revoking some of the freedoms
  • absence of subjection to foreign domination or despotic government:he was a champion of Irish freedom
  • the state of not being imprisoned or enslaved:the shark thrashed its way to freedom
  • the state of being physically unrestricted and able to move easily:the shorts have a side split for freedom of movement
  • (freedom from) the state of not being subject to or affected by (a particular undesirable thing):government policies to achieve freedom from want
  • the power of self-determination attributed to the will; the quality of being independent of fate or necessity.
  • unrestricted use of something:the dog is happy having the freedom of the house when we are out
  • archaic familiarity or openness in speech or behavior.

Origin:

Old English frēodōm (see free, -dom)


recast Show phonetics
verb [T] recast, recast
to change the form of something, or to change an actor in a play or film:
She recast her novel as a musical comedy.
In despair, the theatre director recast the leading role.

liberal
(GENEROUS) Show phonetics
adjective FORMAL
giving or given in a generous way:
He was very liberal with the wine.

liberally Show phonetics
adverb FORMAL
Apply the cream liberally to the affected area.

liberality Show phonetics
noun [U] FORMAL

trance (MENTAL CONDITION) 
noun [C]
a temporary mental condition in which someone is not completely aware of and/or not in control of themselves and of what is happening to them:
First she goes/falls into a deep trance and then the spirit voices start to speak through her.
When a hypnotist puts you in(to) a trance, you no longer have conscious control of yourself.
He sat staring out of the window as if in a trance.


lib・er・al
━━ a. 気前のよい; 豊富な; 自由な; 寛大な; 自由主義の; 一般教養科目の.
━━ n. 自由主義者; 進歩的な人; (L-) (英国などの)自由党員.
liberal art(s) 一般教養科目; (the ~s) 教養課程.
Liberal Democrat 〔英〕 社会自由民主党員; (the ~s) 社会自由民主党.
liberal education 高等普通教育.
lib・er・al・ism ━━ n. 自由主義.
lib・er・al・i・ty ━━ n. 寛大; 心の広さ; 気前のよさ; 贈り物.






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