2008年2月24日 星期日

prone, faculty, scholarship


Faculty members are scheduled to vote on a measure that would permit Harvard to distribute their scholarship online, instead of signing exclusive agreements with scholarly journals that often have tiny readerships and high subscription costs.



 fac・ul・ty 

   

━━ n. 能力, 才能, 技能; 権限; (身体的)機能; 〔米〕 ((単複両扱い)) 教授団[陣], 全教職員; (時にF-) (大学)学部.

scholar noun [C] ━━ n. 学者; 学問のある人; 学生; 奨学生.
1 a person who studies a subject in great detail, especially at a university:
a classics/history scholar
Dr Miles was a distinguished scholar of Russian history.

2 INFORMAL someone who is clever or good at learning by studying:
David's never been much of a scholar.

scholarly 
adjective━━ a., ad. 学者らしい[く]; 学問好きな; 学問的な; 学識のある.
1 containing a serious detailed study of a subject:
a scholarly article/book/work/journal

2 describes someone who studies a lot and knows a lot about what they study:
a scholarly young woman

scholarship 
noun━━ n. 学問, 学識; 奨学金; 奨学生の資格.
1 [U] serious, detailed study:
a work of great scholarship

2 [C] an amount of money given by a school, college, university or other organization to pay for the studies of a person with great ability but little money:獎學金
He got/won a scholarship to Eton.
Paula went to the Royal College of Music on a scholarship.



《惡有惡報》(Measure for Measure)兩處

2004/08 舊文

讀梁實秋翻譯莎士比亞《惡有惡報》(Measure for Measure)兩處:此譯本的 注解說明莎士比亞時代的婚姻法律制度(第一幕第三景:「她確實是我妻……」),這對於讀者的了解有幫助。*雖然梁實秋先生注釋中還是將 technically speaking 直譯為「所以,從技術方面講,…….」(遠東本,第24頁。)


錢定平《科學如此多嬌—科學和科學家的詩魂》上海教育出版社,2004,pp.170-71 引 W. EMPSON 的《矇矓的七種類型》--其中說明《惡有惡報》(Measure for Measure)第一幕第二景:

In her youth
There is a prone and speechless dialect
Such as move men.

其 中 prone有正反義:「不活躍、俯伏」;「活躍、傾向於」。不過,朱生豪(「因為她的青春的魅力裡有一種無言的辯才,可以使男子為之動心。」)、梁實 秋(「因為在她的青春之中有一股無言的表情,可以使男子傾倒。」)、坪內逍遙等名家,都「有意無意沒有譯出來…….『盛名之下,其實難副』……」。

這說法,純粹為了"拉人下馬"的說法,其實,就當時語境、情境,都不太可能有「非分之想」(開黃腔)。


我比較贊成 此處prone的意思為’’ submissive, vulnerable, docile” “eager, ready’。(Shakespeare’s WORDS: A Glossary & Language Companion by David Crystsal and Ben Crystal, p.349。 同書對 dialect的說法為’language, manner of speech’,它舉的例子與上述同處。所以,梁實秋的「表情」比朱的好。)

不過,讀一下《矇矓的七種類型》( Seven Types of Ambiguity ,周邦憲等翻譯,中國美術學院出版社,1996。這翻譯本還不錯,不過此處微妙無法表達,所以我抄原文。)對於此處的完整說法,會更有啟示。

Speechless will not give away whether she is shy or sly, and dialect has abandoned the efforts to distinguish between them. The last half line makes its points calmly, with an air of knowing such cases; and indeed, I feel very indelicate in explaining Claudio’s meaning. (p.202)

附 hc:請注意 sly的說法 第一義:Dexterous in performing an action, so as to escape notice; nimble; skillful; cautious; shrewd; knowing; -- in a good sense.
次義:Artfully cunning; secretly mischievous; wily.)。slyness



prone (LYING DOWN) Show phonetics
adjective FORMAL
lying on the front with the face down:
The photograph showed a man lying prone on the pavement, a puddle of blood about his head.
prone (TENDING) Show phonetics
adjective
be prone to sth/do sth tending to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic:
I've always been prone to headaches.
He was prone to depressions even as a teenager.
She's prone to exaggerate, that's for sure.

-prone Show phonetics
suffix
accident-prone (= often having accidents)
injury-prone (= often getting injuries)

adj. - 有...傾向的, 易於...的, 傾斜的, 俯臥的, 面向下的, 陡的
adv. - 傾斜地

adj. - 傾向がある, うつむいた, 傾斜した, 下り坂の

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