2011年12月31日 星期六

parsimonious, preponderance

preponderance
(prĭ-pŏn'dər-əns) pronunciation
also pre·pon·der·an·cy (-ən-sē)
n.
Superiority in weight, force, importance, or influence.
parsimonious
(par-si-MO-nee-uhs)

adjective: Excessively sparing or frugal.

[形]((形式))〈人が〉けちな, しみったれた;〈物が〉乏しい, みすぼらしい.


Etymology
From Middle English parcimony, from Latin parsimonia, from parcere (to spare). First recorded use: 1598.

Usage
"President Calvin Coolidge was so parsimonious with words that he became known as 'Silent Cal'." — Rob Christensen; Interesting, But Not Quite Convincing; The News & Observer (Raleigh, North Carolina); Sep 12, 2010.

adj.
Excessively sparing or frugal.

parsimoniously par'si·mo'ni·ous·ly adv.
parsimoniousness par'si·mo'ni·ous·ness n.

2011年12月29日 星期四

De Gustibus: drip-drip-drip , a drip

De Gustibus: Loving Coffee Without Being a Drip



de gustibus non est disputandum There is no disputing about tastes.

Gingrich Pushes to Show Nice-Guy Side

Newt Gingrich is using niceness as a kind of last defense against a shelling of attack ads, opponents’ ridicule and a drip-drip-drip of tough news coverage.

dríp-drìp[dríp-drìp]

[名](連続的な)したたり, 雨だれ.


drip
v., dripped, drip·ping, drips. v.intr.
  1. To fall in drops: Water is dripping from that leaky faucet.
  2. To shed drops: an umbrella that is dripping all over the floor.
  3. To ooze or be saturated with or as if with liquid: a speech that dripped with sarcasm.
v.tr.
To let fall in or as if in drops: a brush dripping paint; a speech that dripped invective.

n.
  1. The process of forming and falling in drops.
    1. Liquid or moisture that falls in drops.
    2. A slight intermittent flow or leak: fixed the drip in the faucet.
  2. The sound made by liquid falling in drops: listened to the steady drip of the rain.
  3. A projection on a cornice or sill from which rainwater can drip, protecting the wall below.
  4. Slang. A tiresome or annoying person.
[Middle English drippen.]

behind,well behind, in the dust

Gold Left Some Investors in the Dust
Gold is up more than 11% this year but shares of gold miners have fallen almost 16%, and that has hurt some of the biggest names on Wall Street.

Apple's Chinese partner says it has sold more than 100,000 of the iconic smartphones, but the figure still puts iPhone sales there well behind other big markets.


idioms:

in the dust

  1. Far behind, as in a race or competition: a marketing strategy that left our competitors in the dust.


Type: Public
On the web: http://www.dupont.com
Employees: 60,000
Employee growth: 0.0%

E. I. du Pont de Nemours wants to cover your house, feed your crops, and coat your car. The #3 US chemical maker (behind Dow and ExxonMobil Chemicals) operates through five business units. These segments produce coatings (automotive finishes and coatings), crop protection chemicals and genetically modified seeds, electronic materials (LCDs, sensors, and fluorochemicals), polymers and resins for packaging and other uses, and safety and security materials (under brand names like Tyvek, Kevlar, and Corian). In this decade, the company has slimmed down, exiting the pharmaceutical business and spinning off its fibers operations, and DuPont is now focusing on biotechnology and safety and protection.


The Gulf War temporarily drove up oil prices and refinery margins, leading to profits of over $1 billion for Conoco in 1990. But a worldwide recession was hurting most of the rest of the company. Profits for 1991 fell to $1.4 billion on sales of $38.7 billion, down from sales of $40 billion in 1990. The firm's electronics products had garnered little prestige within the industry and had fallen well behind earlier projections. Consequently, DuPont began pulling back, beginning by selling an electronic connectors business with $400 million in annual sales. DuPont also took a step back from pharmaceuticals, putting that division into a joint venture with Merck & Co.

also-ran,“sell by” date

Underdog Palm Takes on Giants in Smartphones
By SAUL HANSELL
If the market has room only for a few smartphone standards, Palm could well find itself struggling as the perpetual also-ran.


Eillien's Candies, Inc. Issues a Voluntary Recall of Select Candy Items Due to ...
eNews Park Forest
This recall affects all products listed above with a “sell by” date prior to December 22, 2012. The recall was initiated when it was discovered that Yogurt Covered Peanuts may have been mixed with Yogurt Covered Raisins. Consumers with recalled product ...




“sell by” date 賞味期限等

also-ran
n.
  1. A horse that does not win, place, or show in a race.
  2. A loser in a competition, as in an election: "had enough support to place him in the middle of the also-rans" (George F. Will).
  3. One that has little talent or success: just an also-ran in the art world.

2011年12月27日 星期二

temporize,enactment



North Korea Calls for Enactment of Investment Pact

In its first interaction with visitors from South Korea since the death of Kim Jong-il, North Korea on Tuesday called for the implementation of inter-Korean summit agreements.



tem·po·rize (tĕm'pə-rīz') pronunciation
intr.v., -rized, -riz·ing, -riz·es.
  1. To act evasively in order to gain time, avoid argument, or postpone a decision: "Colonial officials . . . ordered to enforce unpopular enactments, tended to temporize, to find excuses for evasion" (J.H. Parry).
  2. To engage in discussions or negotiations, especially so as to achieve a compromise or gain time.
  3. To yield to current circumstances or necessities; act to suit the time.

[French temporiser, from Old French, from Medieval Latin temporizāre, to pass one's time, from Latin tempus, tempor-, time.]

temporization tem'po·ri·za'tion (-pər-ĭ-zā'shən) n.
temporizer tem'po·riz'er n.

enactment[en・act・ment]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[inǽktmənt]

[名]
1 [U]法律の制定, 立法(化).
2 法令, 法律の条項.
3 ((形式))(劇などの)上演.
4 《精神分析》(抑圧された感情などの)行動化, 無意識に行動に表すこと.
5 《経営》創発:企業環境などを所与とせず, 企業が主体的に決定し, 作り上げること.

2011年12月25日 星期日

cascade of mistakes, cascading crisis

按下看大圖
漫畫來源: Ted Goff


Fed Details New Bank Rules
The biggest U.S. banks will be required to limit their financial ties to one another under new proposed rules aimed at preventing the collapse of one big institution from triggering a larger, cascading crisis





cascáde effèct[cascáde effèct]

カスケード効果:あることが次々と影響を及ぼしていくこと.

cascade[cas・cade]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[kæskéid]

[名]
1 (急な)小滝;段々滝. ⇒CATARACT 1
2 滝状のレース飾り;(滝のように)なだれかかるもの;しだれかかる髪.
3 (キクなどの)懸崖(けんがい)作り.
4 《化学》カスケード:液体を流すために段階的に並べた容器.
5 [C][U]《電気》縦続;(蓄電池の)直列.
6 《経営》(職階別による情報の)段階的伝達[接続].
━━[動](自)
1 (…を)滝となって[のように]落ちる, なだれ落ちる((down/over ...)).
2 《コンピュータ》〈ウインドウが〉何枚も重なって表示される.
━━(他)
1 …をどっと落とす.
2 《電気》…を縦続接続する.
3 〈作業を〉段階的に行う.
[フランス語←イタリア語cascata (cascare落ちる+-ata過去分詞語尾=落とされるもの). ラテン語cadere(落ちる)と同系. △CASE1

2011年12月24日 星期六

anterior, posterior


House Republican to Apologize for Mocking First Lady's Figure

Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner was overheard saying that Michelle Obama has a "large posterior."




anterior

adj.
  1. Placed before or in front.
  2. Occurring before in time; earlier.
  3. Anatomy.
    1. Located near or toward the head in lower animals.
    2. Located on or near the front of the body in higher animals.
    3. Located on or near the front of an organ or on the ventral surface of the body in humans.
  4. Botany. In front of and facing away from the axis or stem.

[Latin, comparative of ante, before.]

anteriority an·te'ri·or'i·ty (-ôr'ĭ-tē, -ŏr'-) n.
anteriorly an·te'ri·or·ly adv.

posterior

(pŏ-stîr'ē-ər, pō-) pronunciation
adj.
  1. Located behind a part or toward the rear of a structure.
  2. Relating to the caudal end of the body in quadrupeds or the dorsal side in humans and other primates.
  3. Botany. Next to or facing the main stem or axis.
  4. Coming after in order; following.
  5. Following in time; subsequent.
n.
The buttocks.

[Latin, comparative of posterus, coming after, from post, afterward.]

posteriorly pos·te'ri·or·ly adv.




形]

1 ((限定))後ろの(⇔anterior). ⇒BACK1[類語]
2 (順序・時間的に)(…より)あとの, あとにくる(⇔prior)((to ...)).
3 (体の)後端の, 尾部の;《解剖学》(人間の)背部の.
4 《植物》後面の, 茎の主軸に近い.
━━[名]((しばしば〜s))((おどけて))臀(でん)部, 尻(しり).
pos・te・ri・or・ly
[副]次に, あとに;背部に.

2011年12月23日 星期五

on the table, peeler



Yahoo Has Alibaba Plan on Table
Yahoo is discussing a plan to cut its stake in Alibaba and Yahoo Japan as part of a transaction valued at between $17 billion and $18 billion.




on the table

  1. Up for discussion: Her new offer is on the table.
  2. Put aside for consideration at a later date.


peeler
n.
  1. One that peels, especially a kitchen implement for peeling the rinds or skins from fruits or vegetables.
  2. One that can be readily peeled, especially a crab that is about to molt.
  3. Slang. A stripteaser.

peel·er2 ('lər) pronunciation
n. Chiefly British
A police officer.

[After Sir Robert PEEL.]

statehouse/state capitol, Congress

Nevada Set for Online Poker
Nevada is positioning itself to become the first state to allow Internet poker games within its borders, a move that comes as online-gambling laws are being debated in statehouses and in Congress.



Wal-Mart, Target and other large retailers are ratcheting up a political campaign to force Amazon to collect sales taxes, sensing opportunity in the budget crises gripping statehouses nationwide.



statehouse

also state house (stāt'hous') pronunciation
n.
A building in which a state legislature holds sessions; a state capitol.

2011年12月22日 星期四

come by, come about/ come to pass

Gold, God and forgiveness

Two exhibitions of 15th-century painting highlight what drove the Renaissance

DO BANKERS inevitably go to hell? What many people today merely hope will come to pass was for Christians in the early 1400s a matter of faith.


He sheepishly admits that he’s the man who ruined Rao’s, the tiny Italian restaurant in East Harlem where tables have always been hard to come by. After Mr. Epstein published “Rao’s Cookbook,” by Frank Pellegrino, an owner of the restaurant, and it became a best seller, the place was swamped and its vibe changed.

come about

1. Also, come to pass. Happen, take place, as in How did this quarrel come about? or When did this new development come to pass? Shakespeare used the first term, first recorded in 1315, in Hamlet (5:2): "How these things came about." The variant, dating from the late 1400s, appears often in the Bible, as in, "And it came to pass ... that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus" (Luke 2:1).
2. Also, go about. In sailing, to change tack (direction), as in It's important to duck under the boom when we come about. [Mid-1500s]





come by

1. Acquire, obtain, as in A good assistant is hard to come by. This usage, dating from about 1600, superseded the earlier sense of acquiring something with considerable effort. A variant is come by honestly, meaning "to obtain in some honorable or logical way." For example, I'm sure she didn't come by that large bonus honestly or He does have an unusual gait but he came by it honestly; his father's is the same.
2. Stop in, visit, as in Please come by whenever you're in the neighborhood. [Late 1800s]

blow up, blow off, suuuuuupeeer kawaaaiiiiiiii, CoCoNatch


Yale Prof Defends James Franco's Academic Reputation

Says he finds it hard to believe claims by an ex-NYU professor that the actor routinely blew off class.





機器人收電郵 隨內容起舞

〔特約記者鄭曉蘭/綜合報導〕日本由年輕學子所組成的研究團隊,正在研發一款搭配電腦、 手機乃至於微網誌「推特」(Twitter)使用的溝通機器人「Coconatch」。該款手掌大小的機器人不僅外型亮眼可愛,接收到推特或電郵等訊息 時,還會以不同色彩光線、搖晃模式或聲音等表現訊息內容情感,若以手掌揉搓機器人,它還會以簡單句子代為回覆訊息。Coconatch預計今年秋天上市, 業者希望該款機器人能夠成為年輕女性傳送或接收電子訊息的最佳伙伴。

據日本「產經新聞」報導,日本東京大學、早稻田大學研究生及機器人創投 企業「YUKAI工學」,在大阪大學機器人工學教授石黑浩指導下,研發出能夠輔助人際日常溝通的機器人Coconatch。Coconatch能在連接電 腦的情況下,接收各種文字訊息。例如,若使用者友人以電腦或手機傳送訊息「生日快樂」,Coconatch會以閃光、搖晃通知使用者,同時還能直接唸出 「生日快樂」等簡單句子。若該名友人也使用Coconatch,使用者只要以手掌揉搓機器人,選擇想要回覆的訊息內容,該友人的Coconatch也會以 同樣方式通知接收訊息,並直接唸出「謝謝」等回覆句子。

當Coconatch接收到較為複雜的訊息內容時,也能根據訊息表情符號或關鍵字, 分析訊息情感,並以不同光線或搖晃加以表達。像是以紅色閃光表現憤怒、輕微顫抖表現恐懼等。若搭配時下最流行的微網誌「推特」使用,透過 Coconatch將文字轉換成各種情緒後,電腦的人際溝通也能充滿生命力。

研發團隊表示,年輕女性的接受度可說是機器人普及的首道難關, 研發Coconatch就是希望年輕女性能讓機器人走進她們的生活。該團隊指導教授,同時也是日本著名擬真機器人研發學者石黑浩則說:「當初也沒人料到 『電子雞』(Tamagotchi)或『推特』會風靡一時,Coconatch也很有可能創造另一波新潮流。」

M.I.S.S. Techcessories: CoCoNatch, the Cutest Twitter Accessory Ever


Want some wiggling jellybeans to go along with your tweets?

Want some wiggling jellybeans to go along with your tweets?

Everyone knows by now that anything that comes from Japan is either going to be a) a giant, transforming robot or b) suuuuuupeeer kawaaaiiiiiiii. The CoCoNatch falls into the latter category. Currently being developed by students from both the University of Tokyo and Waseda University, the CoCoNatch is a communication robot that lights up and convulses whenever a new message hits your Twitter feed. It connects to your computer via USB, and will display different colors depending on the context of the new tweet. Gently massaging CoCoNatch will allow you to respond to the message, and 20 different phrases can be recorded and played back when appropriate. As for the design, the confused jellybean look is meant to appeal to people who would otherwise avoid robots altogether. Good idea, since most robots are known to either blow stuff up or marry off couples.

At the moment, the plan is to start selling them in the fall for around $45 a piece.



blow off
1. Vent one's strong feelings; see blow off steam.
2. Disregard, ignore; evade something important. For example, If you blow off your homework, you're bound to run into trouble on the exam. [Slang; second half of 1900s]
3. Overcome, defeat easily, as in With Rob pitching, we'll have no trouble blowing off the opposing team. [Slang; 1950s] Also see blow away, def. 2.
4. Ignore, abandon, refuse to take part. For example, The college is blowing off our request for a new student center. [Slang; mid-1900s]





blow up

1. [scientific computation] To become unstable. Suggests that the computation is diverging so rapidly that it will soon overflow or at least go nonlinear.

2. Syn. blow out.

cocksureness, sorry, cock of the walk

He was not a favourite debater in the public-house, being too quick and overbearing. He irritated the older men by his assertive manner, and his cocksureness. They listened in silence, and were not sorry when he finished.

cocksure

The adjective has one meaning:

Meaning #1: marked by excessive confidence
Synonyms: overconfident, positive

cock of the walk
  1. An overbearing or domineering person.

[Middle English cok, from Old English cocc, probably from Late Latin coccus, from coco, a cackling, of imitative origin.]


sorry
adj., -ri·er, -ri·est.
  1. Feeling or expressing sympathy, pity, or regret: I'm sorry I'm late.
  2. Worthless or inferior; paltry: a sorry excuse.
  3. Causing sorrow, grief, or misfortune; grievous: a sorry development.

[Middle English sori, from Old English sārig, sad, from sār, sore.]

sorrily sor'ri·ly adv.
sorriness sor'ri·ness n.



[形](-ri・er, -ri・est)
I ((叙述))
1 (…を)すまないと思って, 後悔して((for, about ...));(…したのを)すまないと思って((to do, that節, for doing))
I'm sorry.
すみません(▼話し手が自分のミスを認めてあやまるときに用いるが, ((米))では人にぶつかったり話し中にせきがでたりしたときなどはExcuse me. がふつう)
You'll be sorry.
あとで後悔するぞ
Sorry I'm late.
遅くなってすみません(▼I'm sorry to be late. は不自然という英米人もいる)
I'm sorry for causing so much trouble.
ご迷惑をかけて申しわけありません.
2 気の毒な, かわいそうな;[be sorry for A(人)/be sorry about A(人・物・事)]〈Aのことを〉気の毒[かわいそう]に思っている(▼aboutはAのことでその人に対して気の毒に思う意);(…して;…ということを)気の毒に思っている((to do;that節))(▼((略式))ではthatは省略)
I am sorry for her.
彼女が気の毒だ
I am sorry about his accident.
彼の事故は同情にたえない
I am sorry to hear it.
それはお気の毒です.
3 残念[遺憾]に思って;[be sorry for [about] A]〈A(行為・事)を〉残念に思っている(⇒REGRET(他)1);(…することを;…ということを)残念に思っている((to do;that節))
I am sorry to say ...
残念ながら…だ
I am sorry to leave my friends.
友だちを残していくのが残念だ
I'm sorry (that) people objected.
人々が反対したのは残念だ.
4 〈人が〉悲しむ, 嘆く, 悲嘆に暮れて.
II ((通例限定))
5 悲しい〈物・事〉, 悲しそうな, 陰うつな〈顔つき〉, 情けない, ひどい〈物・事・人〉;貧弱な, 役に立たない, おそまつな;((文))悲しむべき, みじめな. ⇒WRETCHED[類語]
a sorry fellow
役立たず, やくざ
a sorry excuse
くだらない弁解
a sorry horse
駄馬(だば)
a sorry plight
苦境
a sorry state
遺憾な状況(▼しばしば“sorry state of affairs”として, 特に問題点をはっきりさせたくないときによく使われる).
III ((間投詞的))
6 ((謝罪))すみません
Sorry, you're misinformed.
悪いけど, 聞き違えているんですよ.
7 ((英))((聞き返し))何とおっしゃいましたか, えっ何ですか.
8 ((発言の訂正))おっと失礼.
[古英語sārig (sār悲しみ+ig形容詞語尾). △SORE

2011年12月19日 星期一

to CHURN, lifelong career,lies like a rug, headhunting

Executives Churn at H-P
A stream of key Hewlett-Packard executives are leaving as the new CEO, Leo Apotheker, reshapes the company. At the same time, Mr. Apotheker is bringing in new recruits and having more executives report directly to him.

INTRODUCING THE NEW MAJORITY
A recent study found that more than half of young teachers plan to make teaching a lifelong career, and many more plan to stay for a long time. Yet half of new teachers leave urban classrooms within three years, just as they are beginning to have the strongest impact on student learning. That is a terrible loss for low-income students, whose classrooms experience the greatest churn. Celine Collins founded Teach Plus to improve the achievement of urban children by ensuring that a greater proportion of students have access to excellent, experienced teachers. The article is in the Huffington Post.

這本「中英文對照」,我有些看法:第一英文版的插畫作者是蔣彝先生,也應該簡介。英文版的推介也值得翻譯。中英文都可考慮加注:
譬如說,第四幕用得多的”to CHURN CREAM”,中文採取戲劇用語「搗對」(參考迴龍閣(紅鬃烈馬[八本])),不過這在教育部的國語辭典為「找不到符合的詞彙!」

青春歌仔(澎恰恰) /王寶川 (熊式一)

to CHURN CREAM

What do you get if you churn cream? You get butter if you do it long enough.


From 1790 to 1893, patent records show 2440 devices were invented to churn cream into butter, so making butter has always been important. ...



EDUCATOR AMONG MACARTHUR AWARD WINNERS
The $500,000 MacArthur awards were announced Tuesday by the Chicago-based John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The money, paid quarterly over five years, comes with no strings, allowing winners unfettered freedom to pursue their creativity.

MacArthur winner Amir Abo-Shaeer, a public high school physics teacher in California, said he was expecting a call from a college student named Liz Brooks who was interested in his work when the foundation called to tell him about the grant. There was no Liz Brooks. She was a creation of the foundation to get the busy teacher on the phone.

"I am prepared to lie like a rug," admitted Gallucci, who notified Abo-Shaeer of the grant. Abo-Shaeer, who left a job in industry to become a teacher, wants to train other educators about his innovative curriculum and the importance of recruiting and inspiring female students.

"Right now I teach full time. I can relieve my schedule to be a teacher trainer. If I have an idea that's exciting or interesting, I can try it," he said. The AP article is in the Wall Street Journal.






If someone lies like a rug, they lie to the point where it becomes obvious that they're lying.



猎头的自白
MBS高管搜寻集团创始合伙人本森:我建议高管们不要只想着眼前的需要。猎头经常能帮到你。那些最成功的高管经常关注自己的下一个机遇在哪里。

猎头
headhunting
n.
  1. The custom of cutting off and preserving the heads of enemies as trophies.
  2. Slang. The process of attempting to remove influence and power from enemies, especially political enemies.
  3. Informal.
    1. The business of recruiting personnel, especially executive personnel, as for a corporation.
    2. The act or an instance of such recruiting.

héad・hùnting

[名][U]
1 ((略式))(人材の)引き抜き, ヘッドハンティング.
2 首狩り.
3 政敵打倒.


churn

This sales term describes the cycle of acquiring new customers and losing others that characterizes consumer e-commerce and limits long-term customer value due to the ease of switching clientele.
Last updated: June 08, 2004.
churn

(chûrn) pronunciation
n.
A vessel or device in which cream or milk is agitated to separate the oily globules from the caseous and serous parts, used to make butter.


v., churned, churn·ing, churns. v.tr.
    1. To agitate or stir (milk or cream) in order to make butter.
    2. To make by the agitation of milk or cream: churn butter.
  1. To shake or agitate vigorously: wind churning up the piles of leaves. See synonyms at agitate.
  2. To buy and sell (a client's securities) frequently, especially in order to generate commissions.
v.intr.
  1. To make butter by operating a device that agitates cream or milk.
  2. To move with or produce great agitation: waves churning in the storm; so angry it made my stomach churn.
phrasal verb:
churn out
  1. To produce in an abundant and automatic manner: churns out four novels a year.
[Middle English chirne, from Old English cyrn, cyrin.]
churner churn'er n.
[名]
1 (バター製造用の)撹乳(かくにゅう)器;飲料撹拌(かくはん)器.
2 ((英))大きなミルク缶.
3 [U]激しくかきまぜる[振り動かす]こと.
━━[動](他)
1 〈クリーム・ミルクを〉(バターを作るため)(撹乳器で)かきまぜる;〈バターを〉かきまぜて作る, 撹乳器で作る((out));…をかきまぜて(…に)する((to, into ...)).
2 〈水・泥などを〉激しくかき回す, はね上げる, 泡立てる((up))
A fierce wind churned the surface of the pond.
激しい風が池の表面を波立てた.
3 〈証券業者が〉〈顧客の証券を〉過度に売買回転する.
━━(自)
1 撹拌器を回す;撹乳器でバターを作る.
2 〈液体・小粒の物体などが〉激しく動く, 泡立つ;〈波などが〉岸を激しく洗う;〈人・車が〉動く, 進む.
3 ((略式))〈胃が〉むかむかする.
4 〈証券業者が〉過度に売買回転をする, 回転商いを行う.
churn ... out/churn out ...
(1) ⇒(他)1
(2) 〈物を〉大量に次々と作る[生み出す], 大量生産する
The restaurant churns out cheap sandwiches.
そのレストランは手早くできる安いサンドイッチを作りまくっている.
churn ... up/churn up ...
(1) ⇒(他)2
(2) 〈人を〉いやにならせる, 怒らせる.

regular and irregularity, parameters of lèse-majesté,

parameters of lèse-majesté

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has pledged up to 20 billion euros of Russian investment to bolster the eurozone. But irregularities during recent elections in Russia were also on the agenda of an EU-Russia summit.

Ahmadinejad wins re-election but Mousavi supporters cry foul

Opposition supporters clash with police after President Ahmadinejad resoundingly won the hotly contested election. His rival Mousavi has alleged widespread irregularities in the polls.

美國表示,華府拒絕接受伊朗強硬派總統「艾馬丹加」勝選連任的結果,並將調查傳言中的選舉舞弊。 美國國務卿「希拉蕊」表示,美國將密切注意伊朗的情勢,並像全球其他國家一樣,等候並觀察伊朗人民的決定。 就在「希拉蕊」發表談話的幾分鐘後,白宮也發表了一份簡短聲明, ...



regular and irregularity

"Tony Chen’s Cartoon Guide to Quality".

有一張指正職品管經理 regular qc manager 走了
代替的replacement是怪胎


lese maj·es·ty lèse ma·jes·té (lēz' măj'ĭ-stē) pronunciation
also
n., pl., lese maj·es·ties, or lèse ma·jes·tés.
  1. An offense or crime committed against the ruler or supreme power of a state.
  2. An affront to another's dignity.

[Partial translation of French lèse-majesté, from Latin (crīmen) laesae māiestātis, (the crime) of injured majesty : laesae, feminine genitive of laesus + māiestātis, genitive of māiestās, majesty.]



regular
━━ a. 規則正しい; 一定の; 通例の; おきまりの; 〔米〕 (サイズが)並の; 整然たる, 系統立った;
(顔立ちなどが)均斉のとれた; 正式な, 正規の, 常備の; 免許のある, 本職の; 〔米〕 (党)公認の; 〔話〕 本当の, 全くの (a
~ rascal ふだつきの悪党); 〔米話〕 面白い; 【文法】規則変化の; 【数】等辺等角の; 【キリスト教】規律に縛られた;
【植】(花が)整正の.

━━ n. 正規兵; 〔米〕 忠実な党員; 正選手; (正規の)修道士; 〔話〕 正社員[職員]; 〔話〕 常連(客); 標準サイズ
((服など)); レギュラー(ガソリン).

regularity規律性、均齊性━━ n. 規則正しさ.

The quality or condition of being usual: 同義:customariness,
habitualness, normalcy, normality, ordinariness, prevalence,
routineness, usualness. See usual/unusual.

例:
In the year since the Dannon Company introduced Activia, a line of yogurt with special live bacteria that are marketed as aiding regularity, sales in United States stores have soared well past the $100 million mark, a milestone that only a small percentage of new foods reaches each year.

記得近年前從小讀者處知道這regularity 其實指"大便定時 通暢無阻"...


irregularity 不規則性
弊端

紡織科技
irregularity 不規則性;不勻率
long-term irregularity 長週期不勻率;長波不勻率
irregularity control 不均勻控制;斑節控制
capacitance type regularity tester 電容式均勻度試驗機

經濟學 regularity assumption 規律性假定
經濟學 regularity condition 正規條件
會計學 irregularity 不合常規
土木工程 Index of track irregularity 軌道不正指數

生物學名詞:植物部分 irregularity 不整齊性
造船工程 cycle irregularity 迴轉不規律度
電機工程 external irregularity 外生紊亂
核能(原子能) irregularity, lattice 晶格不規則性

測量學 parameter of regularity 正規參數
計量學 profile irregularity 輪廓不規則性
計量學 lattice irregularity 晶格不規則性;點陣不規則性



pa·ram·e·ter (pə-răm'ĭ-tər) pronunciation
n.
  1. Mathematics.
    1. A constant in an equation that varies in other equations of the same general form, especially such a constant in the equation of a curve or surface that can be varied to represent a family of curves or surfaces.
    2. One of a set of independent variables that express the coordinates of a point.
    1. One of a set of measurable factors, such as temperature and pressure, that define a system and determine its behavior and are varied in an experiment.
    2. Usage Problem. A factor that restricts what is possible or what results: "all the parameters of shelter-where people will live, what mode of housing they will choose, and how they will pay for it" (New York).
    3. A factor that determines a range of variations; a boundary: an experimental school that keeps expanding the parameters of its curriculum.
  2. Statistics. A quantity, such as a mean, that is calculated from data and describes a population.
  3. Usage Problem. A distinguishing characteristic or feature.

[New Latin parametrum, a line through the focus and parallel to the directrix of a conic : Greek para-, beside; see para-1 + Greek metron, measure; see -meter.]

parametric par'a·met'ric (păr'ə-mĕt'rĭk) or par'a·met'ri·cal adj.
parametrically par'a·met'ri·cal·ly adv.


━━ n. 【数】媒介変数, 助変数, パラメーター; 【統計】母集団特性値, 母数; ((俗に)) 要因; (普通pl.) 限界, 範囲.
parameter driven 【コンピュータ】パラメーター駆動型.
parameterized class 【コンピュータ】(オブジェクト指向で)パラメタライズド・クラス ((他のクラスのテンプレートになるクラス)).
parameter passing 【コンピュータ】パラメーター引き渡し.
par・a・met・ric ━━ a. パラメーターの.
parametric equation 【数】パラメーター方程式.

up and about, pragmatic, pragmatist

“I try to busy myself,” he said, “but from time to time in idle moments, my mind goes back to the happy days we were up and about together.” Agnostic and pragmatic in his approach to life, he spoke with something like envy of people who find strength and solace in religion. “How do I comfort myself?” he asked. “Well, I say, ‘Life is just like that.’ ”


up and about

Also, up and around; up and doing. Active again, especially after an illness or rest, as in They had her up and about just one day after surgery, or I'm so glad you're up and around; we need your help, or It's time to be up and doing. [Early 1800s]



A Pragmatist and his free spirit: the half-century romance of Hu Shih and Edith Clifford Williams - Google 圖書結果

books.google.com/books?isbn=9629963418...Susan Chan Egan, Chih-P'Ing Chou - 2009 - 香港:中文大學
周質平的中文書早問市: 胡適與韋蓮司:深情五十年 台北:聯經 1998
instrumentalism
(ĭn'strə-mĕn'tl-ĭz'əm) pronunciation
n.
A pragmatic theory that ideas are instruments that function as guides of action, their validity being determined by the success of the action.
[名][U]道具主義, 概念道具説:概念の価値は行動の手段としての有効性によって決まるというDeweyの考え方.

pragmatic[prag・mat・ic]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[prægmǽtik]

[形]
1 ((ほめて))実利[実用, 実際]的な.
2 《哲学》実用[実利]主義の.
3 国事の, 内政の.
4 〈人が〉多忙な;活動的な.
5 おせっかいな;口出しする;独断的な;頑固な;うぬぼれた.
━━[名]おせっかいな[独断的な, うぬぼれた]人.

2011年12月18日 星期日

add up, assess, evaluate

“All these pieces add up to a nice picture but whether it is enough to overcome their radioactivity, that will be hard to tell,” Mr Lewis says.“这一切加起来看上去不错,但是否足以消除他们的辐射,还很难讲,”刘易斯表示。
radioactivity比喻用法


THINK TANK REVIEW SAYS INTERNATIONAL MATH STUDY DOESN’T ADD UP
BOULDER, CO – While a recent report asserts that U.S. students are far behind students in most other developed countries in mathematics achievement, a review of the study released today finds that it makes deceptive comparisons and exaggerates small differences, rendering the study useless in helping educators improve U.S. students’ math performance. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? was reviewed for the Think Twice think tank review project by Jeremy Kilpatrick, Regents Professor of Mathematics Education at the University of Georgia. Professor Kilpatrick has extensive background and expertise in national an



evaluate
(ĭ-văl'yū-āt') pronunciation
tr.v., -at·ed, -at·ing, -ates.
  1. To ascertain or fix the value or worth of.
  2. To examine and judge carefully; appraise. See synonyms at estimate.
  3. Mathematics. To calculate the numerical value of; express numerically.

[Back-formation from evaluation, from French évaluation, from Old French, from evaluer, to evaluate : e-, out (from Latin ē-, ex-; see ex-) + value, value; see value.]

evaluation e·val'u·a'tion n.
evaluative e·val'u·a·tive adj.
evaluator e·val'u·a·tor n.




assess
(ə-sĕs') pronunciation
tr.v., -sessed, -sess·ing, -sess·es.
  1. To estimate the value of (property) for taxation.
  2. To set or determine the amount of (a payment, such as a tax or fine).
  3. To charge (a person or property) with a special payment, such as a tax or fine.
  4. Sports. To charge a player, coach, or team with (a foul or penalty).
  5. To determine the value, significance, or extent of; appraise. See synonyms at estimate.

[Middle English assessen, from Old French assesser, from Latin assidēre, assess-, to sit by as an assistant judge : ad-, ad- + sedēre, to sit.]

assessable as·sess'a·ble adj.




add up

1. Amount to an expected or correct total, as in These figures don't add up, meaning they are not correct. [Mid-1800s]
2. Be consistent, make sense, as in I'm not sure that all this testimony will add up. [First half of 1900s]
3. Assess, form an opinion of, as in He looked across the track and added up the competition. Also see add up to.
    (自)((進行形不可))
    (1) ⇒(自)
    (2) 計算が合う
    The final totals didn't add up.
    総合計が合わなかった.
    (3) ((略式))〈事実・証拠・行動などが〉意味をなす, つじつまが合う, 筋がとおる
    There were points in her testimony that didn't add up.
    彼女の証言にはつじつまの合わない点がいくつかあった.

2011年12月17日 星期六

top off, sound of music, the von Trapps

On Jan. 1, miles that count toward elite status are reset on most airlines; here is what you need to know to top off your frequent flier account.


36 Hours: Salzburg, Austria

By CHARLY WILDER

The Austrian city abounds with tourists, most searching for the sound of music - be it Mozart or the von Trapps - yet some of its best offerings are its Christmas markets and taverns.



Wikipedia
Maria von Trapp

photo from Declaration of Intention, 21 January 1944
Born Maria Augusta Kutschera
26 January 1905
Vienna, Austria-Hungary
Died 28 March 1987 (aged 82)
Morrisville, Vermont, USA
Spouse Georg Ludwig von Trapp (1880–1947) (m. 1927–1947)
Children Rosmarie von Trapp (b. 1928)[1] Eleonora von Trapp (b. 1931)
Johannes von Trapp (b. 1939)

Maria Augusta von Trapp (26 January 1905 – 28 March 1987), also known as Baroness Maria von Trapp, was the stepmother and matriarch of the Trapp Family Singers.[2][3] Her story served as the inspiration for a 1956 German film that in turn inspired the Broadway musical The Sound of Music.[4]




top off
1. Fill a container, especially when it is almost full to begin with. For example, I don't need much gas; just top off the tank, please. [First half of 1900s]
2. Finish, especially in a spectacular way, as in They topped off their trip with a visit to the White House. [First half of 1800s]

2011年12月16日 星期五

capital hog, high on the hog


There's one place on Wall Street you don't want to be at the moment: in a business that is a capital hog under new Basel III rules.




'High on the Hog'

By JESSICA B. HARRIS
Reviewed by WILLIAM GRIMES

How Africa put its stamp on America's food traditions.



high on the hog
1. Under the influence of alcohol or a drug. For example, I think he got high on marijuana before he came to the party. [c. 1930]
2. Very enthusiastic about, as in They were high on video games. [1940s]



hog

1. Favored term to describe programs or hardware that seem to eat far more than their share of a system's resources, esp. those which noticeably degrade interactive response. Not used of programs that are simply extremely large or complex or that are merely painfully slow themselves. More often than not encountered in qualified forms, e.g., memory hog, core hog, hog the processor, hog the disk. “A controller that never gives up the I/O bus gets killed after the bus-hog timer expires.

2. Also said of people who use more than their fair share of resources (particularly disk, where it seems that 10% of the people use 90% of the disk, no matter how big the disk is or how many people use it). Of course, once disk hogs fill up one filesystem, they typically find some other new one to infect, claiming to the sysadmin that they have an important new project to complete.高速公路路霸等



2011年12月11日 星期日

schoolwork, publicist, familiarly, impresario,

Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes

London’s Victoria and Albert Museum is hosting an extensive tribute to
the all-embracing impresario in the form of a multi-media exhibition.


Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren (22 January 1946 – 8 April 2010)[2] was an English[3][4] performer, impresario, self-publicist and former manager of the Sex Pistols and the New York Dolls.[5]





move familiarly amid the intellectal elit of his day.


impresario
(ĭm'prĭ-sär'ē-ō', -sâr'-) pronunciation
n., pl., -os.
  1. One who sponsors or produces entertainment, especially the director of an opera company.
  2. A manager; a producer.

[Italian, from impresa, undertaking, from feminine past participle of imprendere, to undertake, from Vulgar Latin *imprēndere. See emprise.]


[名](複〜s)
1 (オペラ・バレエ・音楽会などの)興行主, 座元.
2 監督;指揮者.

familiar
adj.
  1. Often encountered or seen. See synonyms at common.
  2. Having fair knowledge; acquainted: was familiar with those roads.
  3. Of established friendship; intimate: on familiar terms.
  4. Natural and unstudied; informal: lectured in a familiar style.
  5. Taking undue liberties; presumptuous: Students should not be familiar toward an instructor.
  6. Familial.
  7. Domesticated; tame. Used of animals.
n.
  1. A close friend or associate.
  2. An attendant spirit, often taking animal form.
  3. One who performs domestic service in the household of a high official.
  4. A person who frequents a place.

[Middle English, from Old French familier, from Latin familiāris, domestic, from familia, family. See family.]

familiarly fa·mil'iar·ly adv.

publicist

Meaning #1: someone who publicizes
Synonyms: publicizer, publiciser

schoolwork
n.
Lessons done at school or to be done at home.

2011年12月10日 星期六

in the know, privy, sundial, pragmatist

Much of what they had to say was already familiar to many in the audience; the subject has been closely followed in the nuclear industry. But the sheer power of the story, some fresh details, and the continuing mysteries about some of its particular twists, kept the audience captivated. And hearing the story from people as in the know as anyone is likely to clarify some things—including which questions need further clarification.



in the know

Privy to special or secret information, as in Not too many people are in the know about this project. [Late 1800s]


((略式))(…の)内情に通じて((about ...)).


*****

世界進步很快。十幾年前讀過羅馬的Pantheon 有米開郎基羅的手書,還有青年Tadao Ando 安藤忠雄到那兒一訪的回憶。現在CNN報導The Pantheon: Hadrian's giant sundial…..

*****

昨天讀陳毓賢先生和胡適學專家周質平教授合著的A Pragmatist and his free spirit: the half-century romance of Hu Shih and Edith Clifford Williams – (胡適與韋蓮司:深情五十年 到 A Pragmatist and his free spirit:...) ,想起我在東海可能見過歷史系研究生的周先生。又想起許教授前年任歷史系主管時,希望為研究生募集獎學金,好讓他們安心研究。

黃郁珺《十八世紀英國紳士的大旅遊》台北:唐山2008

這本是輔仁大學的歷史所碩士論文的出版 (西洋史叢書的第二本)。還有很認真的學生在撰寫論文,並且有機會出版,是很可喜可賀的事。論文處理的主題很重要和有趣,寫得也很用心。大旅遊的目的是教育其實可能含蓋歐洲各名城和地方,所以我弄不清楚是否該包括希臘。無論如何,本書以義大利為主

基本上,重要的英文和漢文文獻都提到了,似乎只有一夲書的書名前後不一The Compleat Gentlemen (p.33) vs. The Complete Gentlemen (p.46) ;容易令人誤解的”public school” (現在多改稱為independent school)作者用「公學」,而引張漢裕翻譯的《國富論》則採用錯誤的「公立學校」。不過這些是微不足道的小毛病。如果有索引,那就相當好了。

我只舉一小例說明作者的細心118頁的注94中指出:…..此處趙乾龍所譯歌德《意大利遊記》將privy 譯為客房」,疑為「廁所」之誤植。…..」我們看哥德的上下文,知道英譯的屋外簡易廁所的privy ,比較合脈絡。妙的是,我查另外一本湖南文藝出版社(2006)的翻譯,也用「客房」。

這讓我想起吉川幸次郎的《漢武帝》中引《漢書‧外戚傳》中說:衛子夫「於軒中得幸」。吉川先生引高木正一先生指出漢末的《釋名》說:「廁或曰軒」

privy
(prĭv'ē) pronunciation
adj.
  1. Made a participant in knowledge of something private or secret: was privy to classified information.
  2. Belonging or proper to a person, such as the British sovereign, in a private rather than official capacity.
  3. Secret; concealed.
n., pl., -ies.
    1. An outdoor toilet; an outhouse.
    2. A toilet.
  1. Law. One of the parties having an interest in the same matter.

[Middle English prive, from Old French, from Latin prīvātus, private, from prīvus, single, alone.]


[形](-i・er, -i・est)
1 ((叙述))(秘密・陰謀などに)内々に関与して, 内情に通じて((to ...)).
2 私的な, 私用の, 個人用の;ある特定の個人(特に国王)に属する[関する]
a privy chamber
(宮廷の)私室.
3 ((古))秘密の, 人目をさけた, 隠れた.
━━[名]
1 ((主に米・英古))屋外.
2 《法律》利害関係人, 当事者, 承諾人.
prív・i・ly
[副]

ire, stipulate, praying-wheel

Ma’s chief opponent is Tsai Ing-wen, chairwoman of the Democratic Progressive Party, which officially backs the independence of Taiwan. Tsai has raised the Beijing government’s ire for her refusal to publicly support an informal, unwritten 20-year-old agreement between the two sides stipulating that there is just “one China.”

ire

(īr) pronunciation
n.
Anger; wrath. See synonyms at anger.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin īra.]


stipulate,

(stĭp'yə-lāt') pronunciation

v., -lat·ed, -lat·ing, -lates. v.tr.
    1. To lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract.
    2. To specify or arrange in an agreement: stipulate a date of payment and a price.
  1. To guarantee or promise (something) in an agreement.
v.intr.
  1. To make an express demand or provision in an agreement.
  2. To form an agreement.

[Latin stipulārī, stipulāt-, to bargain.]

stipulator stip'u·la'tor n.

stip·u·late2 (stĭp'yə-lĭt) pronunciation
adj.
Having stipules.


藏輪=經輪=prayer wheel

經輪是刻有經文的圓筒形物,用手轉動之可以代替唸經,屬古代高科技。 (梁永安)

佛學中另有一名相曰「輪藏」,其英義如:
Revolving scriptures, a revolving stand with eight faces, representing the eight directions, each containing a portion of the sacred canon; a praying-wheel, the revolving of which brings as much merit to the operator as if he had read the whole. (RL)

2011年12月9日 星期五

give the devil his due, flex (one's) muscles

lash in the pan As Apple flexes its mobile muscles, it is changing the appearance of video on the web GIVE Steve Jobs his due. Apple’s charismatic boss is, without question, the most strategic thinker in the business. He appreciates better than anyone that ...




Kremlin flexes its muscles amid post-election protests

A heavy police presence, soldiers in the streets and imprisoned protesters.
The Kremlin is showing who's boss after disappointing results in
parliamentary elections for Putin and Medvedev's United Russia party.


idiom:

flex (one's) muscles Informal.

  1. To exhibit or show off one's strength.

give the devil his due

Give credit to what is good in a disagreeable or disliked person. For example, I don't like John's views on education, but give the devil his due, he always has something important to say, or I don't like what the new management has done, but give the devil his due, sales have improved. [Late 1500s]

2011年12月8日 星期四

get muddied, to muddy

Bank Sovereign-Debt Disclosures Get Muddied
Banks' disclosures about their government-debt holdings after the EU stress tests now leave an opaque picture of their portfolios.


WHY EDUCATION INNOVATION TENDS TO CRASH AND BURN
Frederick Hess blogs in Pundicity: There are at least two big sets of obstacles when it comes to "scaling" innovation. First, innovative models often rely on tough-to-replicate elements. Second, there are key structural conditions that impede efforts to grow even more replicable models. Second, even promising models run afoul of several structural impediments.



muddy

adj., -di·er, -di·est.
  1. Full of or covered with mud.
    1. Not bright or pure: a muddy color.
    2. Not clear; cloudy, as with sediment: muddy coffee.
  2. Lacking luster; dull: a muddy complexion.
  3. Confused or vague: muddy thinking.
tr.v., -died, -dy·ing, -dies.
  1. To make dirty or muddy.
  2. To make dull or cloudy.
  3. To make obscure or confused.
muddily mud'di·ly adv.
muddiness mud'di·ness n.

riot-hit jails, hardest-hit, behind bars,reprieve

Japan's Emperor, Empress, Visit Quake's Hardest-Hit Areas
Voice of America
Photo: AP Japan's emperor and empress were in devastated Miyagi prefecture Wednesday to view earthquake damage and comfort survivors. It was the first visit to the hardest-hit areas by Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, though they have visited ...




hit

v., hit, hit·ting, hits. v.tr.
    1. To come into contact with forcefully; strike: The car hit the guardrail.
    2. To reach with or as if with a blow: The bullet hit the police officer in the shoulder.
    1. To cause to come into contact: She hit her hand against the wall.
    2. To deal a blow to.
    3. To strike with a missile: fired and hit the target.
  1. To press or push (a key or button, for example): hit the return key by mistake.
  2. Sports.
    1. To reach with a propelled ball or puck: hit the running back with a pass.
    2. To score in this way: She hit the winning basket.
    3. To perform (a shot or maneuver) successfully: couldn't hit the jump shot.
    4. To propel with a stroke or blow: hit the ball onto the green.
  3. Baseball.
    1. To execute (a base hit) successfully: hit a single.
    2. To bat against (a pitcher or kind of pitch) successfully: can't hit a slider.
    1. To affect, especially adversely: The company was hit hard by the recession. Influenza hit the elderly the hardest.
    2. To be affected by (a negative development): Their marriage hit a bad patch.
  4. Informal.
    1. To win (a prize, for example), especially in a lottery.
    2. To arise suddenly in the mind of; occur to: It finally hit him that she might be his long-lost sister.
    1. Informal. To go to or arrive at: We hit the beach early.
    2. Informal. To attain or reach: Monthly sales hit a new high. She hit 40 on her last birthday.
    3. To produce or represent accurately: trying to hit the right note.
  5. Games. To deal cards to.
  6. Sports. To bite on or take (bait or a lure). Used of a fish.

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Ex-Black Panther Given Death Row Reprieve
Convicted cop-killer will instead spend the rest of his life behind bars.

(rĭ-prēv') pronunciation
tr.v., -prieved, -priev·ing, -prieves.
  1. To postpone or cancel the punishment of.
  2. To bring relief to.
n.
    1. Postponement or cancellation of a punishment.
    2. A warrant for such an action.
  1. Temporary relief, as from danger or pain.

[Alteration (influenced by Middle English repreven, to contradict , variant of reproven, to rebuke) of Middle English reprien, probably from Old French repris, past participle of reprendre, to take back, from Latin reprehendere, reprēndere, to hold back. See reprehend.]

reprievable re·priev'a·ble adj.

《中英對照讀新聞》Egypt prisoners refuse to leave riot-hit jails 埃及囚犯拒絕離開爆發暴動的監獄

◎ 魏國金

Egypt prisoners refuse to leave riot-hit jails

埃及囚犯拒絕離開爆發暴動的監獄

Some prisoners at Cairo’s Abu Zaabel prison on Sunday refused to leave their cells despite a mass breakout by other convicts amid a nationwide revolt, saying they only had a short time left to serve.

部分在開羅巴布札巴爾監獄的囚犯週日拒絕離開他們的牢房,儘管其他受刑人在舉國起義之際大批逃獄,他們說,他們不久就服刑期滿。

As residents descended on the smouldering jail to loot food and Islamists searched for missing comrades in the riot-hit jail, some prisoners said they would rather stay put.

當居民衝入這座在悶燒的監獄以掠奪食物,以及伊斯蘭主義者在發生暴動的監獄裡尋找失蹤的同志時,一些囚犯說,他們寧願留在原處。

"Come out, come out," an Egyptian man said to a convict still behind bars. "No I’ve only got a month left, I don’t want to go out and get arrested again," said the worried-looking prisoner.

「出來,出來!」一個埃及人對一名還在獄中的囚犯說。「不,我僅剩一個月就可出獄,我不要出去然後再被逮捕,」這位面露擔憂的囚犯說。

"Look no one’s going to come and give you food or water," said the man. "God will provide for me," was the only answer.

「看!沒有人會來給你送飯送水,」男子說。「真主會供應我,」是僅有的回答。

Thousands of prisoners have escaped from detention facilities around Egypt either during rioting or after prison guards abandoned their posts during anti-government protests.

埃及各地數千名囚犯或因暴動、或在獄警於反政府抗爭期間放棄職守後逃出拘禁場所。

新聞辭典

breakout︰名詞,脫逃、(集體)越獄、突破。例句︰The breakout was carefully planned.(該越獄是嚴密計畫的。)

descend on︰ 突襲、突然造訪。例句︰The plague descended on this ill-nourished population.(瘟疫突然降臨到這些營養不良的居民中。)

stay put︰留在原地、固定不動。例句︰After all, he cannot stay put in New York forever.(他畢竟不能永遠待在紐約不走。)