2017年3月27日 星期一

bureaucracy, bureaucratic bottleneck, bottle, contrarian, lightning fast, laissez-faire


Bureaucracy
The hobo narrator of Harry McClintock’s 1928 song Big Rock Candy Mountain dreams of reaching a carefree paradise where “they hung the jerk who invented work”. While history may not remember the name of that particular “jerk”, we do know who the identity of the French economist who invented a word for something almost as tiresome”: ‘bureaucracy’. In 1818, Jean Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay tethered the French word for desk (bureau) to the Greek suffix that means ‘the power of’ (-cracy) and gave a name to the red tape that was beginning to strangle society. Having coined a word for the governmental processes that impose tedious rules on individual behaviour, Gournay might seem the last person we’d expect to give birth to a term that means “let people do as they think best”: laissez-faire.


Then, from 1973 to 2005, Mr. Safire wrote his twice-weekly “Essay” for the Op-Ed page of The Times, a forceful conservative voice in the liberal chorus. Unlike most Washington columnists who offer judgments with Olympian detachment, Mr. Safire was a pugnacious contrarian who did much of his own reporting, called people liars in print and laced his opinions with outrageous wordplay.



His dislike of bureaucracy was legendary and fit with his sometimes contrarian nature, said Dr. Michael Witherell, Fermilab's current director, who has a handwritten note from Dr. Wilson that reads in part: ''An all too common failing of large institutions is to fall into the bureaucratic morass -- complicated procedures, red tape and all that. That's terrible.''


Search For Truth: The next step... - Page 334 - Google Books Result

https://books.google.com.tw/books?isbn=0578166003
Bryan Radzin - 2015 - ‎Fiction
... the pipeline only took seven months, which wasn't fast enough to ease the summer drought, but was lightning fast when dealing with any sort of bureaucracy.

contrariann.
One who takes a contrary view or action, especially an investor who makes decisions that contradict prevailing wisdom, as in buying securities that are unpopular at the time.
contrarian contrarian adj.


bottleneck
 Show phonetics
noun [C]
1 a place where a road becomes narrow, or a place where there is often a lot of traffic, causing the traffic to slow down or stop:
Roadworks are causing bottlenecks in the city cent
2 a problem that delays progress:
Is there any way of getting round this bureaucratic bottleneck?
ボトルネック bottleneck】瓶頸
〔瓶の首の意〕
生産活動や文化活動などで,全体の円滑な進行・発展の妨げとなるような要素。隘路(あいろ)。障害。ネック。
Why IT often remains a bottleneck to growth
"A lot of other elements are in place," says Nick Holland, an analyst with Pyramid Research, CambridgeMass. "The latest block is the interface. That's the bottleneck."
Seattle-based ZenZui thinks it has a user-friendly approach.
re.
bureaucracy
noun [C or U] MAINLY DISAPPROVING
a system for controlling or managing a country, company or organization that is operated by a large number of officials who are employed to follow rules carefully:
I had to deal with the university's bureaucracy before I could change from one course to another.

bureaucrat 
noun [C]
someone working in a bureaucracy:
It turned out she was one of those faceless bureaucrats who control our lives.

bureaucratic 
adjective
I had a lot of bureaucratic hassle (= long and difficult dealings with officials) trying to get the information I needed.
The company was inefficient because it was highly bureaucratic.



bottle

(bŏt'lpronunciation
n.
  1. A receptacle having a narrow neck, usually no handles, and a mouth that can be plugged, corked, or capped.
  2. The quantity that a bottle holds.
  3. A receptacle filled with milk or formula that is fed, as to babies, in place of breast milk.
  4. Informal.
    1. Intoxicating liquor: Don't take to the bottle.
    2. The practice of drinking large quantities of intoxicating liquor: Her problem is the bottle.
tr.v.-tled-tling-tles.
  1. To place in a bottle.
  2. To hold in; restrain: bottled up my emotions.
[Middle English botel, from Old French botele, from Medieval Latin butticula, diminutive of Late Latin buttis, cask.]

bottleneck 
noun [C]
1 a place where a road becomes narrow, or a place where there is often a lot of traffic, causing the traffic to slow down or stop:
Roadworks are causing bottlenecks in the city centre.

2 a problem that delays progress:
Is there any way of getting round this bureaucratic bottleneck?


bot・tle



  
━━ n. 瓶(1本の量); 授乳瓶; 〔話〕 (the ~) 酒, 飲酒; 〔英俗〕 度胸.
 be on the bottle 酒びたりで.
 hit the bottle 〔俗〕 酒豪である.
 lose one's bottle 〔英俗〕 気後れする, ひるむ.
 over the [a] bottle 酒を飲みながら.
 take to the bottle 酒におぼれる.
━━ vt. 瓶に詰める ((up)).
 bottle out 怖じ気づく.
 bottle up (感情を)抑える; 封じ込める; (犯人を)捕える.
 bottle baby 人工栄養の乳児.
 bottle bank 〔英〕 (リサイクル用)空き瓶回収用容器.
 bot・tled ━━ a. 瓶詰めの.
 bottle-feed ━━ vt. 人工栄養[ミルク]で育てる.
bottle-fed a. ミルクで育った.
 bot・tle・ful ━━ n. ひと瓶(の量).
 bottle green 暗緑色.
 bottle・neck 隘路(あいろ); 障害; 瓶の首; 【楽】ボトルネック(奏法) ((ギターの弦の上を折った瓶の首やガラスの管を滑らせて音を出す)); 【コンピュータ】ボトルネック ((遅くなる原因の処理)).


 bottle・nose 【動】バンドウイルカ ((約3m)); とっくり[だんご]鼻.
 bottle opener 栓抜き.
 bottle party 酒持寄りのパーティー.
 bottle-washer 〔話〕 雑役夫, 下っぱ.

Photograph, give someone a run for his or her money

Photograph
Strange to think that some of the most seemingly stable names we attach to the objects around us were embraced only gradually and by a process of elimination. The English astronomer and inventor Sir John Herschel’s proposal of the word ‘photograph’ in 1839 had to see off rival coinages before becoming fixed permanently in the world’s vocabulary. Had history taken another path, your gran might be admonishing you for not sending enough ‘sun-prints’ or ‘photogenes’. One competitor, heliograph, which predated ‘photograph’ by a generation, gave Herschel’s suggestion a serious run for its money.


give someone a run for his or her money


to be as good at something as someone who is extremely good:
He’ll give those professional players a run for their money.

visualize, breakout, VISUALS, ‘psychosomatic’, BON TON

Bending it Like Beckham
Bending it Like Beckham
Happy birthday to footballer David Beckham, who turns 33 today. In his Manchester United heyday, he was considered such a national treasure that he was mentioned in the film Love Actually: Hugh Grant, as the Prime Minister, listed "David Beckham's right foot" as one of the things that make Britain great. And, of course, he was lionized in Keira Knightley's breakout film, Bend it Like Beckham. Beckham is married to Victoria Adams, "Posh Spice" of The Spice Girls fame. Beckham's move to the LA Galaxy team was hailed as a giant step in fanning enthusiasm for soccer in the US.


Visualise
It’s hard to believe that no one had ever ‘visualised’ anything before 1817, but that’s the year the Romantic poet and critic Samuel Taylor Coleridge coined the word in his philosophical confession Biographia Literaria (a full century before the word ‘envision’ was minted). In retrospect it seems fitting that a writer whose mind’s eye was haunted by such phantasmic visions as the spectral ship in his poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, and by the “flashing eyes” and “floating hair” that unsettle the ending of his prophetic lyric Kubla Khan, should be the one to give a name to the seeing of the unseeable. Tortured throughout his life by both material and immaterial substances alike, Coleridge is unsurprisingly responsible for introducing into English other words for describing the darker aspects of experience, such as ‘psychosomatic’ and ‘pessimism’.



VISUALS, BON TON

VISUALS


Reviews by STEVEN HELLER
Reviews of new visual books about the Mad magazine cartoonist Basil Wolverton; Hergé, the creator of Tintin; Times Square; and art deco in Havana.


1.on Page 53:
"bon ton'. This cartoon of 1777 mocks the enthusiasm of middle-class women for French fashions"





bon ton

(bŏn tŏn'pronunciation

Bon Ton 
n.
    1. A sophisticated manner or style.
    2. The proper thing to do.
  1. High society.
[French : bon, good + ton, tone.]


visual
adjective
relating to seeing:
visual stimulus/impact/abilities
See also VDU.

visually
adverb
Guide dogs open up the lives of the blind or visually impaired.
Books for children have to be visually very exciting.

visualizeUK USUALLY visualise
verb [T]
to form a picture of someone or something in your mind, in order to imagine or remember them:
I was so surprised when he turned up - I'd visualized someone much older.

visualizationUK USUALLY visualisation
noun [U] FORMALthe visual arts plural noun
the arts of painting and sculpture, rather than literature and music



breakout Show phonetics
noun [C]
a violent escape, especially by a group, from prison:
There has been a mass breakout from one of Germany's top security jails.

wag, tube station, a run for one's money,


Photograph
Strange to think that some of the most seemingly stable names we attach to the objects around us were embraced only gradually and by a process of elimination. The English astronomer and inventor Sir John Herschel’s proposal of the word ‘photograph’ in 1839 had to see off rival coinages before becoming fixed permanently in the world’s vocabulary. Had history taken another path, your gran might be admonishing you for not sending enough ‘sun-prints’ or ‘photogenes’. One competitor, heliograph, which predated ‘photograph’ by a generation, gave Herschel’s suggestion a serious run for its money.


BREAKING: Three people injured, one seriously, in a stabbing at a London tube station in what police are treating as a terror attack. 
http://cnn.it/1LVsvmx

Suicide Squad


Michael Nedo
At the family estate, summer 1917. Paul Wittgenstein is second from left; Ludwig Wittgenstein is at right.



Published: February 26, 2009
“A tense and peculiar family, the Oedipuses,” a wag once observed. Well, when it comes to dysfunction, the Wittgensteins of Vienna could give the Oedipuses a run for their money.

EuroVox | 10.03.2008 | 05:30

Meet Hobnox -- A New Media Platform

German's Hobnox is Taking Internet Interactity to the Next Level.

File sharing sites like YouTube and MySpace have been giving record labels, film companies and TV stations a run for their money for some time now.
Hobnox is looking to join this movement by enabling it’s users to view content on demand, as well as providing them with the opportunity to upload their own videos and audio – legally. So how does it work?



wag (HUMOROUS PERSON) Show phonetics
noun [C] OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL
a humorous person who likes to make jokes

waggish Show phonetics
adjective OLD-FASHIONED INFORMAL


Idioms: run for one's money, a

A close contest or a strong competition, as in We may not win the game, but let's give them a run for their money.
This term probably comes from horse racing, where one may get considerable pleasure from watching the race even if one does not win much. Its first recorded use was in 1874.

paramour, bereft, muggle, bamboo capitalists, darksome burn, somber, twin

The feats of Casanova were formidable, especially when you consider that he was bereft of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and the rest of the social media by which to pursue his conquests. Now, a campaign for a line of personal products seeks to make up for that.
The campaign, scheduled to get under way on Monday, is for the Wet brand of lubricants sold by Wet International, part of Trigg Laboratories. The campaign, timed to coincide with the coming of Valentine’s Day, is centered on a social application that lets computer users declare a friend, family member, paramour or special someone the “world’s greatest lover.”

According to the Congressional report, state-owned firms account for two-fifths of China’s non-agricultural GDP. If firms that benefit from state largesse (eg, subsidised credit) are included, that figure rises to half. Genuinely independent firms are starved of formal credit, so they rely on China’s shadow banking system. Fearing a credit bubble, the government is cracking down on this informal system, leaving China’s “bamboo capitalists” bereft.


Muggle
Men, needless to say, are not, as a gender, uniquely skilled at coining compelling words, however uncelebrated female neologists have been. With their contributions to culture frequently marginalised, is there any wonder that we find that the Oxford English Dictionary attributes to female writers the first usage of such words as ‘outsider’ (to Jane Austen in 1800) and ‘angst’ (imported from German by George Eliot in 1849). In our own age, it has once again fallen to a female novelist to define who is endowed with the powers of the initiated and those left wanting of wizardry ways. J K Rowling’s coining of ‘muggle’ in her 1997 book Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone to describe mortals bereft of supernatural skill, reminds of the perennial magic of words – those who have it and those who don’t.





The Republic of China's (Taiwan) Twin Oaks Estate
Post Date:2008/2/23
Home to Nine ROC Ambassadors, A National Historic Site, and A Symbol of Friendship with the United States
Situated atop a hill on a parcel of land once owned by a one-legged Revolutionary War general is a 26-room mansion that served as the official residence of nine ambassadors from the Republic of China (ROC) between 1937 and 1978 and which still belongs to the ROC government in Taiwan.
Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844–89). Poems. 1918.
33. Inversnaid
THIS darksome burn, horseback brown,
His rollrock highroad roaring down,
In coop and in comb the fleece of his foam
Flutes and low to the lake falls home.
A windpuff-bonnet of fáwn-fróth5
Turns and twindles over the broth
Of a pool so pitchblack, féll-frówning,
It rounds and rounds Despair to drowning.
Degged with dew, dappled with dew
Are the groins of the braes that the brook treads through,10
Wiry heathpacks, flitches of fern,
And the beadbonny ash that sits over the burn.
What would the world be, once bereft
Of wet and of wildness? Let them be left,
O let them be left, wildness and wet;15
Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet.

這首詩1881年 極難懂。 我們只注意"音效"。

This darksome burn, horseback brown,
His rollrock highroad roaring down,

darksome

(därk'səmpronunciation
adj.
Dark and somber.

somber

(sŏm'bərpronunciationadj.
    1. Dark; gloomy.
    2. Dull or dark in color.
    1. Melancholy; dismal: a somber mood.
    2. Serious; grave.
burn
n. (名詞 noun)[C]
  1. 【蘇格蘭】小溪
  2. 賣假毒品給人;毒品交易中收了錢卻不給貨
rollrock 還不知道確定意思.....或可從 Rock Roll 解


muggle
ˈmʌɡ(ə)l/
noun
informal
  1. a person who is not conversant with a particular activity or skill.

    "she's a muggle: no IT background, understanding, or aptitude at all"

Muggle - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muggle

In the Harry Potter book series, a Muggle is a person who lacks any sort of magical ability and was not born in a magical family. Muggles can also be described as people who do not have any magical blood in them.

bereft
(bĭ-rĕft') pronunciation
v.
A past tense and a past participle of bereave.

adj.
    1. Deprived of something: They are bereft of their dignity.
    2. Lacking something needed or expected: "Today's graduates seem keenly aware that the future is bereft of conventional expectations" (Bruce Weber).
  1. Suffering the death of a loved one; bereaved: the bereft parents.


par·a·mour (păr'ə-mʊr') pronunciation n.
A lover, especially one in an adulterous relationship.

[Middle English, from par amour, by way of love, passionately, from Anglo-Norman : par, by (from Latin per) + amour, love (from Latin amor , from amāre, to love).]

2017年3月26日 星期日

intellectual, Intellectualise, do someone in

Intellectualise
Coleridge is frequently given credit too for devising a related verb: to ‘intellectualise’, meaning to transform a physical object into a property of the mind. While he certainly deserves credit for coining a term that suggests the very opposite – the underused ‘thingify’ (which means to turn a thought into an object) – in fact ‘intellectualise’ probably belongs to an obscure contemporary and inspiration of the Romantic poet: a mysterious 18th-Century traveller known by the curious nickname ‘Walking Stewart’ for his celebrated feat of having wandered over a greater portion of the known world than anyone before him. In his decades of rambling over India, Africa and Europe, Stewart developed an eccentric philosophy that centred on the notion that mind and body were in constant flux between a world that is ceasel



There was a great Marxist called Lenin
Who did two or three million men in
That’s a lot to have done in,
But where he did one in
That grand Marxist Stalin did ten in
http://econ.st/1IOcyys


THE intellectual history of the West in the 20th century was dominated by arguments over totalitarianism: its causes, effects—and possible justification. Even...
ECON.ST


do someone in

6
informal

Kill someone:oh my God, she’s done him in

panorama, soft spot, jurisdiction, mishap, panoramic, overcast, Built Environment



The Guardian

David Cameron’s father took detailed legal advice about the pros and cons of different tax havens before the fund he had helped set up was transferred to Ireland, the Guardian can reveal. The move to Ireland came in the same month as Cameron, by then prime minister, was railing against tax avoidance schemes, saying “some of these schemes we have seen are quite frankly morally wrong.”



Panama Papers show Ian Cameron apparently ‘jurisdiction shopping’ for…
THEGUARDIAN.COM|由 HOLLY WATT 上傳


The economic stimulus bill facing key votes in Congress would provide enough money to modernize more than 300 schools in the District, Maryland and Virginia and would boost unemployment benefits to more than half a million people in those jurisdictions hurt by the recession, according to White House...
(By Mary Beth Sheridan and Michael Laris, The Washington Post)



人造環境 Built Environment
《紐約時報》將下文的School of the Built Environment翻譯成”建築學院”(可能受到北京清華的說法之影響?) ,是錯誤的。因為我們到該校簡介,可以知道它的大學部包括四系: 建築工程,土木工程,營建管理暨評價,都市研究等。
We offer broad undergraduate education in four distinct, yet complementary disciplines: Architectural Engineering; Civil Engineering; Construction Management and Surveying; and Urban Studies.
http://hchealth.blogspot.tw/…/easing-brain-fatigue-with-wal…

Boston, February 26, 2009 – Emerging alternatives to the shareholder-centric model — at Grameen Danone Foods, the John Lewis Partnership, Novo Nordisk, and elsewhere — could help companies avoid ethical mishaps and contribute more to the world at large.


Suit to Halt Big Collider in Europe Is Dismissed


Published: September 29, 2008

A federal judge in Honolulu has dismissed a lawsuit trying to stop the running of a giant particle accelerator outside Geneva, dodging the issue of whether it could actually cause the end of the world.

The judge, Helen Gillmor, said in her ruling Friday that the court lacked jurisdiction over the Large Hadron Collider, which is located on the Swiss-French border and was built by CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, with help from the United States and dozens of other countries.
When it is operating at full steam, the collider, which started circulating protons earlier this month before a series of mishaps shut it down for the winter, will accelerate protons to energies of seven trillion electron volts and slam them together in search of particles and forces not seen since the early moments of the Big Bang.
Last spring, Walter Wagner, a retired radiation safety officer who lives in Hawaii, and Luis Sancho, a science writer and professor in Barcelona, filed the lawsuit, claiming that the collider could produce a black hole that could eat the Earth or cause some other calamitous effect. Predictions of such outcomes have been refuted in safety studies.
This summer, for example, a report by a panel of physicists appointed by CERN concluded that the collider would not produce anything that billions of years of high-energy cosmic collisions had not produced.
Mr. Wagner and Mr. Sancho sued CERN, the United States Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Federal District Court in Hawaii. The Energy Department and the science foundation have contributed about $531 million of the collider’s estimated cost of $8 billion.
Judge Gillmor decided that the fraction paid by the United States was too small for the collider to constitute a “major federal action,” as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act, and so the court lacked jurisdiction on environmental grounds.
In an e-mail message, Mr. Sancho said, “The lawsuit was an unbelievable success in that it put the collider issue on the intellectual agenda.” Mr. Sancho also said that the most recent and thorough safety report would not have been done without their pressure. “The study was not perfect, but at least the safety factors on which CERN is relying are not quite as bad,” he said.
Judge Gillmor said the claim of planetary apocalypse was “a complex debate” of concern to more than just physicists. Noting that Congress had approved the money for the collider, she suggested that arguments about its effects would be more appropriately aired in a political arena than in a judicial one.
“Neither the language nor the history of NEPA,” she wrote, referring to the National Environmental Policy Act, “suggest that it was intended to give citizens a general opportunity to air their policy objections to proposed federal actions.”



His panoramas integrate broad swaths of natural terrain, urban architecture and symbols of culture, and Mr. Leong said architectural history courses at Berkeley had a great influence on how he sees the built environment...

He shot his panoramic image of Cairo from this ancient trash heap, now a park on a hill. He returned three times before the lighting conditions provided the tonal quality he sought. The best conditions for his preferred evenness of light occur either at noon, when the fewest shadows are cast, or when it is overcast. “When things fall into deep shadow, it is more difficult to capture a detail,” he said.

The Courier-Mail understands the draft policy bans free or discounted fast-food and alcoholic drinks at bars inside an officer’s jurisdiction.
《信使郵報》了解,這項草案政策禁止警員在其轄區內的酒吧享有免費或打折的快餐與酒精飲料。


jurisdiction Show phonetics
noun [U]
the authority of an official organization to make and deal with especially legal decisions:
The court has no jurisdiction in/over cases of this kind.
School admissions are not under/within our jurisdiction.

ju・ris・dic・tion

  


━━ n. 裁判[司法]権; 支配権, 権力, 管轄権[区域].

jurisdiction

  • [dʒùərisdíkʃən]
[名][U]
1 裁判権;管轄権, (…への)権限, 支配権((over ...))
territorial jurisdiction
領有支配権.
2 法域:司法権の及ぶ範囲.
3 管轄区域
That's not our jurisdiction
うちの管轄じゃない.

Panorama
Some words seem to vibrate with the very spirit of the meaning they denote. “Panorama” is one of these; its very rhythm seems in harmony with the wide, mountain-top vistas, boundless horizons, and unblinkered breadth of vision for which it stands. That the word (which literally means ‘all-seeing’) should have entered the world’s lexicon around 1789, a year synonymous with the collapse of that notorious cultural enclosure, Paris’s prison-fortress the Bastille, seems entirely appropriate to panorama’s emancipating vibe. How ironic, then, to discover that the word was initially attached to an entirely confined experience: a cylindrical painting that imprisons its audience – an indoor visual contraption devised by the Irish artist Robert Barker. 


panorama 
noun [C]
1 a view of a wide area:
From the hotel roof you can enjoy a panorama of the whole city.

2 a view, description or study of events or activities:
The investigation revealed a panorama of corruption and illegal dealings.

panoramic 
adjective
a wonderful panoramic view of the countryside

pan・o・ram・a

  
━━ n. パノラマ; 全景, 広々とした眺め; 全景画[写真]; 概観; (事件の)全容; つぎつぎに変る光景; (P-) パノラマ (((1)米国のテレビ討論番組.(2)英国の時事問題を扱うテレビ番組)).
 pan・o・ram・ic ━━ a.

overcast Show phonetics
adjective
cloudy and therefore not bright and sunny:
The sky/weather was overcast.
a depressing, overcast winter morning━━ vt. 雲でおおう; 暗くする; (生地の)へりをかがる.
━━  a. 曇った; 暗い ((with)); へりをかがった.
━━  n. 一面の雲; 曇天; 縁(ふち)かがり.


Spectrum | 30.09.2008 | 04:30

President George W. Bush and the "Blue Legacy"

US president George Bush has never been regarded as a friend of the environment. But he does seem to have a soft spot for the oceans.

In 2006 he established the North-western Hawaiian Islands National Monument, the world’s largest protected marine zone. Now in the twilight of his presidency, he intends to establish what has been rightly called a historic “Blue Legacy”. He has directed his staff to evaluate proposals to protect hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in the Pacific Ocean that are under US jurisdiction. On the table are areas around the Mariana Islands, the Rose Atoll, as well as the islands Kingman, Johnston, Jarvis, Howland und Baker. This initiative would catapult the US to the forefront of a new international trend in ocean conservation: the creation of marine parks. Madeleine Amberger has this report.

mishap
noun [C or U]
bad luck, or an unlucky event or accident:
The parade was very well organised and passed without mishap.
A series of mishaps led to the nuclear power plant blowing up.

soft spot

n.
  1. A tender or sentimental feeling: has a soft spot for stray animals.
  2. A weak or vulnerable point: a soft spot in the nation's defense strategy.
  3. See fontanel.