2016年5月31日 星期二

deck (DECORATE), discomfiture



Decked out in red factory overalls, László Moholy-Nagy cut a striking figure of an avant-garde utopian during his time teaching at the Bauhaus in Dessau from 1923 to 1928. Read More →




By ELINOR BURKETT
This is not the tourist Africa of upscale game parks and locals decked out in quaint native dress, but a land of stark beauty and riveting contradictions.

In arithmetic and every form of calculation he was particularly apt, and one of his earliest recollections, and one which he always mentioned with much pleasure, was that in his tenth year he was called out of bed by his teacher, who had wagered with an acquaintance that in less than five minutes he (the boy) could calculate the number of feet in a given load of wood. After obtaining the dimensions, half asleep as he was, Phineas, much to the delight of his teacher and the discomfiture of the doubting acquaintance, correctly figured out the result in less than two minutes.

dis·com·fi·ture (dĭs-kŭm'fĭ-chʊr', -chərpronunciation

n.

  1. Frustration or disappointment.
  2. Lack of ease; perplexity and embarrassment.
  3. Archaic. Defeat.


deck (DECORATE) Show phonetics
verb [T]
to decorate or add something to something to make an effect:
The room was decked with flowers.
The wedding guests were decked out in their finery (= wearing their best clothes).
See also bedeck.

recurring, disregard, recurrent, figural recurrence, palindrome, chiasmus






"Democracy is the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time."

In a piece from the July 3, 1943, issue of The New Yorker, E. B. White responded to a request from the Writers’ War Board.
NYR.KR|由 THE NEW YORKER 上傳



Joyce on George Meredith

Western Europe was the setting for much of Dr. Gay’s work and Freud was a recurring subject. An urbane and nonbelieving Jew, like Freud, Dr. Gay found in him not only a compelling life and body of work, but an approach to history. 

蓋伊博士的著作多以西歐為研究背景*,一再探討弗洛伊德相關的主題。他就像弗洛伊德,是位沒信教的、溫文爾雅的猶太人。蓋伊認為弗洛伊德的一生和全套的著作、思想都很可觀,可作為歷史研究的方法。蓋伊博士曾在西新英格蘭研究所研究過心理分析,提倡以弗洛伊德技術來研究歷史,他也認為,該領域會被化約為關於童年期的慾望和神經官能症的公式,乃是無稽之談。
recurrent colliers.

When I had the honour of being made President of the Mathematical Association, I did not foresee the unusual responsibility which it entailed. It was my intention to take as the theme of a presidential address the consideration of some aspect of those special subjects to which my own researches have principally been directed. Events have forced me to abandon that intention. It is useless to discuss abstract questions in the midst of dominant practical preoccupation. We cannot disregard the present crisis in European civilization. It affects every function of life. In the harder struggle for existence which lies before the nation, all departments of national effort will be reviewed for judgment. The mere necessity for economy of resources will provoke this reformation.



IBM’s diverse portfolio of information technology (IT) solutions, services and steady base of recurring revenue is expected to provide the company with the competitive edge to weather the current global financial crisis.

HC: "figural recurrence" 的直譯是"修辭格--或比喻的--重提/重述"。


漢學家Andrew H. Plaks *的文學術語 "figural recurrence" 

《劍橋中國文學《金瓶梅》一節》;


....乃已精心設計的重複模式結撰而成。
   "figural recurrence"譯成:"形象迭見"  ,未附原文, p.131

The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature: From 1375

https://books.google.com.tw/books?isbn=0521855594
Kang-i Sun Chang, ‎Stephen Owen - 2010 - ‎Chinese literature
... critics alike have noticed that the novel is constructed out of carefully constructed patterns of repetition or, to borrow a term used by Plaks, "figural recurrence.
---

浦安迪自選《金瓶梅》非集體創作
前後呼應法 .....
   "figural recurrence" 譯成:"形象再現法", 附原文 , p.139

recurrence 

Pronunciation: /rɪˈkʌrəns/ 

NOUN

[MASS NOUN]
The fact of occurring again:a drug used to prevent the recurrence of breast cancer[COUNT NOUN]: fifty-two patients had recurrences of intestinal problems


melanoma

melanoma黑色素瘤是一种主要在皮肤的恶性黑色素细胞肿瘤。是皮肤癌中罕见的一种,但恶性程度高,是皮肤癌的主要死亡原因之一[1]。目前唯一有效的治疗方法是在肿瘤厚度小于1毫米时手术切除肿瘤[2] 。

murdrum (MUR-drum)

noun
1. The killing of a human being in a secret manner.
2. The fine payable to the king by the hundred where such a killing occurred, unless the killer was produced or the victim proved to be a Saxon.

Etymology
From Medieval Latin, from Old French, murdre, murder.

Usage
"[F]or the unsolved murders of Frenchmen, they inflicted a particularly punitive version of the long-lasting murdrum fine ..." — Saint George for England. Rebecca Colman, Saint George for England, Contemporary Review, Apr 1997. Did you notice that today's word is a palindrome? Two other palindromic words have made the AWAD list so far: minim and Nauruan. -Anu

re・cur


Occur again periodically or repeatedly:when the symptoms recurred, the doctor diagnosedsomething different(as adjective recurringa recurring theme

(Of a thought, image, or memory) come back to one’s mind:Oglethorpe’s words kept recurring to him
(recur to) Go back to (something) in thought or speech:the book remained a favourite and she constantlyrecurred to it
━━ vi. (-rr-) (話が)前に戻る ((to)); 回想する, (考えが)再び浮ぶ ((to)); 再発する, 繰返す; 【数】循環する.
re・cur・rence ━━ n. 再発; 回想; 元へ戻ること.
re・cur・rent
 ━━ a. 回帰[再発,循環]する.
re・cur・rent・ly ad.
re・cur・ring ━━ a. 繰り返し起こる; 循環する.
recurring decimal 【数】循環小数.
re・cur・sion ━━ n. 【コンピュータ】再帰, 反復; 【数】帰納.
recursion formula 【数】帰納式, 回帰公式.
re・cur・sive ━━ a. 【コンピュータ】再帰的な.
recursive call 【コンピュータ】再帰的呼び出し, リカーシブ・コール.
recursive procedure 【コンピュータ】再帰的手続き.

palindrome

(păl'ĭn-drōm') pronunciation


n
. - 回文 A word, phrase, verse, or sentence that reads the same backward or forward. For example: A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!

palindrome, a word (like deed, , eye, or tenet) that remains the same if read backwards; or a sentence or verse in which the order of letters is the same reading backwards or forwards, disregarding punctuation and spaces between words: Madam, I'm Adam.


A segment of double-stranded DNA in which the nucleotide sequence of one strand reads in reverse order to that of the complementary strand.縺向相反而鹼序相同或近於相同的DNA的構造;迴折
遺傳的旋轉對稱順序
[From Greek palindromos, running back again, recurring : palin, again + dromos, a running.]
palindromic pal'in·dro'mic (-drō'mĭk, -drŏm'ĭk) adj.


張先生來函再解釋
早!Palinode還是第一次聽到。實在無知。對修辭學我是現學現賣(學而時習之),開totorial實在不敢。
昨晚翻閱陳望道的《修辭學發凡》(到目前我還是奉為經典),發現他把chiasmus和Palindrome同列為「回文」,而且以chiasmus(書中並未列英文,是我附會)為先,也即我們所熟知的「回文」(palindrome)反而是「後來有人好奇,定要做到詞序完全可以不拘,無論順讀、倒讀都可成文。」所舉例子都出自《老子》:
信者不美、美者不信
善者不辯、辯者不善
知者不博、博者不知
可見這是很古老的修辭格,但依現代的需求,應該和palindrome分家。大陸年來對修辭格常有新見(台灣似較保守),二年前在大陸買得一本《修辭新格》(福建教育出版社,譚永祥主編),可能已有此格,可惜此書好意借給一位教授朋友,迄今未還(可見內容還不錯),無法印證,可能要設法重買了。
張華 上

---
 chiasmus
 …a rhetorical or literary figure in which words, grammatical constructions, or concepts are repeated in reverse order

disregard
tr.v., -gard·ed, -gard·ing, -gards.
  1. To pay no attention or heed to; ignore.
  2. To treat without proper respect or attentiveness.
n.
Lack of thoughtful attention or due regard.

disregarder dis're·gard'er n.
disregardful dis're·gard'ful adj. recur Show phonetics
verb [I] -rr-
to happen many times or to happen again:
The theme of freedom recurs throughout her writing.
If the pain/problem/trouble, etc. recurs, come and see me.

recurring Show phonetics
adjective (ALSO recurrent)
The father-daughter relationship is a recurring theme in her novels.
For much of his life he suffered from recurring bouts of depression.
LeFanu suffered all his life from a recurrent nightmare that he was trapped in a falling house.

recurrence Show phonetics
noun [C or U]
The doctor told him to go to the hospital if there was a recurrence of his symptoms.re·cur·rent (rĭ-kûr'ənt, -kŭr'-) pronunciation
adj.
  1. Occurring or appearing again or repeatedly.
  2. Anatomy. Turning in a reverse direction. Used of blood vessels and nerves.
recurrently re·cur'rent·ly adv.

overland, scrimp, Avatar, Avanti , skimp, skimpy, caboodle

BUSINESS

Riding the New Silk Road
The network of routes known as the Silk Road has been revived as a faster, overland alternative to shipping electronics from China to European markets by sea.



Yangon Journal
Embracing the West, on Burmese Terms
By THE NEW YORK TIMES


The members of Me N Ma Girls in Myanmar are battling conservative parents, censors and boyfriends who think it is outrageous that they perform in such skimpy outfits.




RISING COSTS FORCE STUDENTS TO SKIMP ON TEXTBOOKS
As the cost of textbooks continues to rise, many college students are choosing to skimp on textbooks to save money. Seven out of 10 undergraduates surveyed at 13 college campuses said they had not purchased one or more textbooks because the cost was too high, according to a new survey released Thursday by the U.S. Public Interest Research Group. The Government Accountability Office has estimated that textbooks cost a quarter the average tuition for state universities and three-fourths the average tuition at community colleges. The article is in The Huffington Post.

The Avatar Effect 阿凡達效應

◎俞智敏
Hollywood blockbusters aren’t usually notable for their artistic or political subtlety. And James Cameron’s latest sci-fi hit, "Avatar," would seem to be no exception, going by the lament of some critics that the film’s impressive special effects are undercut by a skimpy story line and flat dialogue.
好萊塢巨片通常並非以其藝術或政治敏銳性著稱。詹姆斯.卡麥隆的最新熱門科幻電影「阿凡達」似乎也不例外,依照某些批評者的說法,此片的故事情節短缺、對話單調,讓片中驚人的特效失色不少。


New Opera? Great Idea. Good Luck! By ANTHONY TOMMASINI
Skillful creators have been tempted to milk music for its elemental power and scrimp on the specifics of storytelling.


New York City teems with questionable urban legends. But the fable about the postal clerk and his wife, a Brooklyn librarian, scrimping to amass an astounding collection of modern art, cramming all 5,000 pieces in a rent-controlled one-bedroom apartment, then donating the whole kit and caboodle to the National Gallery of Art in Washington and galleries in all 50 states, is true.


iPad Mini Design "Could Outshine the New iPad"
"Apple did not skimp on the aesthetics of the much-anticipated 'iPad mini.'"

caboodle[ca・boo・dle]

  • 発音記号[kəbúːdl]     [名]((俗))一群, 群れ(lot).
the whole (kit and) caboodle
何[だれ]もかも, 全部.


skimp
v., skimped, skimp·ing, skimps. v.tr.
  1. To deal with hastily, carelessly, or with poor material: concentrated on reelection, skimping other matters.
  2. To provide for or supply inadequately; be stingy with: accused them of skimping defense funding.
v.intr.
To be stingy or very thrifty.

adj.
Scanty; skimpy.

[Obsolete skimp, scanty, perhaps from alteration of SCRIMP.]

 skimpy
(skĭm') pronunciation
adj., -i·er, -i·est.
  1. Inadequate, as in size or fullness, especially through economizing or stinting: a skimpy meal.
  2. Unduly thrifty; niggardly.
skimpily skimp'i·ly adv.
skimpiness skimp'i·ness n.


scrimp 
verb [I]
to save money by spending less than is necessary to reach an acceptable standard:
There is a risk that the debt-ridden airline that may be tempted to scrimp on maintenance or security.


o·ver·land  (vr-lnd, -lnd)
adj.
Accomplished, traversing, or passing over the land instead of the ocean: an overland journey; an overland route.
adv.
By way of land: traveled overland to the ranch.

scrimp

発音〔skrimp〕
━━ v. 切詰める, けちけちする ((on)).
scrimp and save [scrape]  倹約する.
scrimp・y ━━ a. とぼしい; けちけちした.



Meet John Guy, The Met's curator of South and Southeast Asian art. In this Live video, John leads a tour of "Encountering Vishnu: The Lion Avatar in Indian Temple Drama," which closes on Sunday, June 5.http://met.org/1Z5OPmo


Avatar

n.

  1. The incarnation of a Hindu deity, especially Vishnu, in human or animal form.
  2. An embodiment, as of a quality or concept; an archetype: the very avatar of cunning.
  3. A temporary manifestation or aspect of a continuing entity: occultism in its present avatar.
[Sanskrit avatāraḥ, descent (of a deity from heaven), avatar : ava, down + tarati, he crosses.]
Avanti
Historic kingdom, north-central India. Located on the overland trade routes between northern and southern India, it lay within present-day Madhya Pradesh. Its capital was at Ujjayini (near present-day Ujjain). It flourished in the 6th – 4th centuries BC as one of the great powers of northern India. In the 4th century BC it was conquered and annexed by Candra Gupta Maurya of Magadha. Ujjayini, one of the seven holy cities of Hinduism, was renowned for its beauty and wealth; it also became a centre of early Buddhism and Jainism.


exact a heavy toll, ground zero, exáct scíence, deliver a blow

The graphically explicit depiction of sexuality garnered the novel a notoriety in China akin toFanny Hill and Lolita in English literature, but critics such as the translator David Tod Roy see a firm moral structure which exacts retribution for the sexual libertinism of the central characters.[4]




Takata’s Faulty Airbags Still Exact Toll as Recalls Lag

Millions of people are still driving vehicles with Takata airbags that may pose a lethal danger because they have not been repaired or, in some cases, even recalled.

Sandy Exacts Toll on the Economy 
Sandy is delivering a blow to the U.S. economy that will reverberate for weeks, disrupting commerce in the nation's most-populous region, destroying billions of dollars' worth of property and likely boosting gasoline prices.


For Magazines, a Bitter Pill in iPad

By JEREMY W. PETERS
The magazine industry is discovering that although Apple may offer new opportunities with its devices, it exacts a heavy toll.
French President Sarkozy outlined in more detail a stimulus program to counter the toll from the financial crisis.

death toll, ground zero

BBC內容在中國都"撞牆"
Pope offers prayer at Ground Zero
The Pope prays for peace and the victims of the 9/11 attacks as he visits Ground Zero at the end of his US trip.
China orders over 660 mines to be shut down

China has ordered all illegally-operated coal mines in northernShanxi province and over 660 legal mines in Heilongjiang province tobe shut down. The decision comes in response to a coal mine blastlast week in Shanxi province which killed at least 105 people. Thegovernment will also pay around 30,000 dollars in compensation tothe victims' families. China has forced many small mines to closeover the last two years, helping to reduce the death toll from coalmining to around 3,100 this year compared to some 4,700 in 2006.


2007

Three Gorges Dam Exacts Its Toll

New Risks Emerge At Giant Three Gorges Dam

Three Gorges Dam Exacts Its Toll
China's Three Gorges Dam project is suffering from unforeseen problems including landslides and water pollution, raising new doubts about a project that has come to symbolize the country's effort to control its environment.


exact (OBTAIN)
verb [T] FORMAL
to demand and obtain something, sometimes using force, threats or persuasion, or to make something necessary:
to exact revenge on someone
The blackmailers exacted a total of $100 000 from their victims.
Heart surgery exacts tremendous skill and concentration.


VERB

[WITH OBJECT]
1Demand and obtain (something) from someone:he exacted promises that another Watergate would never be allowed to happen
1.1Inflict (revenge) on someone:she exacts a cruel revenge for his rejection

exacting
adjective
demanding a lot of effort, care or attention:
an exacting training schedule
exacting standardstoll (SUFFERING)
noun [U]
suffering, deaths or damage:
Independent sources say that the death toll from the earthquake runs into thousands.

take its/their/a toll
If something takes its/their/a toll, it causes suffering, deaths or damage:
The problems of the past few months have taken their toll on her health and there are shadows beneath her eyes.
The deepening recession has also taken its toll in the south of the country, where unemployment is rife.


ground zero
noun1 [C usually singular] the exact place where a nuclear bomb explodes:
The blast was felt as far as 30 miles from ground zero.

2 [U] the site of the former World Trade Center in New York City, which was destroyed in an attack on September 11, 2002





death toll noun
[C usually singular]the number of people who die because of an event such as a war or an accident:
The day after the explosion the death toll had risen to 90.


toll
n.
  1. A fixed charge or tax for a privilege, especially for passage across a bridge or along a road.
  2. A charge for a service, such as a long-distance telephone call.
  3. An amount or extent of loss or destruction, as of life, health, or property: “Poverty and inadequate health care take their toll on the quality of a community's health” (Los Angeles Times).
tr.v.tolledtoll·ingtolls.
  1. To exact as a toll.
  2. To charge a fee for using (a structure, such as a bridge).
[Middle English, from Old English, variant of toln, from Medieval Latin tolōnīum, from Latin telōnēum, tollbooth, from Greek telōneion, from telōnēs, tax collector, from telos, tax.]

exact
(ĭg-zăkt') pronunciation
adj.
  1. Strictly and completely in accord with fact; not deviating from truth or reality: an exact account; an exact replica; your exact words.
  2. Characterized by accurate measurements or inferences with small margins of error; not approximate: an exact figure; an exact science.
  3. Characterized by strict adherence to standards or rules: an exact speaker.
tr.v., -act·ed, -act·ing, -acts.
  1. To force the payment or yielding of; extort: exact tribute from a conquered people.
  2. To demand and obtain by or as if by force or authority: a harsh leader who exacts obedience. See synonyms at demand.
[Latin exāctus, past participle of exigere, to weigh out, demand : ex-, ex- + agere, to weigh.]
exactable ex·act'a·ble adj.
exactness ex·act'ness n.
exactor ex·ac'tor or ex·act'er n.



[形]
1 正確な, 的確な
exact directions
的確な指示
an exact likeness
酷似
Will you tell me his exact words?
正確には彼は何と言ったのですか.
2 ((限定))〈数量などが〉正確な, かっきりの, ちょうどの
the exact time of departure
出発の正確な時間.
3 (…の点で)精密な, 厳密[綿密]な((in ...))
exact instruments
精密機器
an exact man
綿密な考え方をする人
She is very exact in her behavior.
態度がきちょうめんだ.
4 〈法律・規則などが〉きびしい, 厳格な.
5 《数学》〈微分方程式が〉完全な.
to be exact
((話))正確には, 厳密に言うと.
━━[動](他)((形式))
1 …を(人に)求める, 要求する((from, of ...))
The leader exacted loyalty from his followers.
指導者は部下たちに忠誠を求めた.
2 〈税金・作業・降伏などを〉(…から)強要する, 強制する;…を(人から)取り立てる((from, of ...))
exact money from [of] a person
人から金を取り立てる
exact payment of a debt
借金を取り立てる.
3 〈事情・仕事が〉…を要求する, (緊急に)必要とする.
[ラテン語exactus(ex-外へ+agere追う)]



exáct scíence[exáct scíence]精密科学(物理学・化学など).