2014年12月31日 星期三

Up yours, Mancunian, hold out for

Benjamin Zephaniah

Null
Mr Zephaniah made headlines when he revealed why he had snubbed the Establishment. “OBE, me? Up yours, I thought,” the poet said.

LS Lowry

Null
The Mancunian painter holds the record for refusing the most state honours. In total he turned down five awards, including a knighthood, between 1955 and 1976.

Roald Dahl

Null
The beloved children’s author turned down an OBE, supposedly because he was holding out for a knighthood instead, but he died in 1990 without ever receiving one.


hold out for




Definition of hold out for in English:

Continue to demand (a particular thing), refusing toaccept what has been offered:he is holding out for a guaranteed 7 per cent rise
 Mancunian,  Man|cu¦nian
Pronunciation: /manˈkjuːnɪən /

Definition of Mancunian in English:

NOUN

ADJECTIVE

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Origin

early 20th century: from Mancunium, the Latin name of Manchester, -an.


Up yours,

Definition of up yours in English:

vulgar slang An exclamation expressing contemptuousdefiance or rejection of someone.

2014年12月30日 星期二

nestle, out of puff,puff up, overblown, chou, hit-and-miss, dollop, poof

Tobacco-related deaths

Out of puff

Oct 29th 2009
From Economist.com

Where smoking kills most people


NEARLY one in five deaths in rich countries is caused by smoking, according to new data released this week by the World Health Organisation. In 2004, the latest year for which data are available, tobacco use killed an estimated 5.1m people worldwide, or one in every eight deaths of adults aged 30 and over. Residents of richer countries are suffering more now because they have been smoking longer: cancers and chronic respiratory diseases caused by tobacco smoke take a long time to develop. Deaths in poor countries, where many more people have taken on rich-world smoking habits in recent decades, are predicted to rise dramatically in the next 20 years.
Sutterstock


《中英對照讀新聞》Briton fuming over fine for smoking in own van英國人為在自己車上抽菸被罰錢感到惱火 ◎管淑平
A painter and decorator has been fined for breaching Britain’s smoking ban -- by puffing on a cigarette in his own van, he said Friday. 一名油漆工?和裝潢師?因為在他自己的廂型車上抽菸違反英國禁菸法而被罰款,他週五表示。

poof
interj.
Used to indicate a sudden vanishing: The magician waved a wand, and poof! The birds disappeared!
[Imitative.]



Few revolutions have been made with a hand-beater. But Mr Rich's was one. Before he began to experiment with flaking and precipitating soyabeans, whipped cream was a hit-or-miss affair. It would not keep, especially in the humid South. Nor would it freeze. Over-beating produced a buttery mess, and ambitious decorations sank gradually into gloop. To top it all, in wartime, heavy whipping cream was a banned substance. All available milk was needed fresh for the people, or dried and condensed for the troops. To dream of an éclair or a cream puff, even of a modest dollop nestling a cherry or topping off a sundae, was close to a traitorous act.

Page 37
I can lift heavy objects, do all the shopping, cooking, and dishwashing when my wife is ill, carry my own luggage without puffing. ...


Yale Divinity School, viewed from East Rock, nestled among trees of every color. November 2014
Photographer: Philipp Arndt '16

nestle Show phonetics
verb [I or T; + adverb or preposition]
1 to rest yourself or part of your body in a warm, comfortable and protected position:
She nestled (her head) against his shoulder.

2 to be in, or put something in, a protected or sheltered position, with bigger things around it:
Bregenz is a pretty Austrian town that nestles between the Alps and Lake Constance.


dollop Show phonetics
noun [C]
a small amount of something soft, especially food:
a dollop of ice cream/whipped cream
hit-and-miss Show phonetics
adjective (ALSO hit-or-miss)
If something is hit-and-miss you cannot depend on it to be of good quality, on time, accurate, etc:
The trains are often late, so getting to work on time is a fairly hit-and-miss affair.



puff (BREATHE) 
verb [I]
to breathe fast and with difficulty, usually because you have been doing exercise:
He came puffing up the stairs.
[+ speech] "I ran all the way home, " she puffed (= said while puffing).

puff 
noun INFORMAL
be out of puff to be breathing with difficulty because you have been doing physical exercise

puffed (out) UK adjective [after verb] (US pooped) INFORMAL
breathing with difficulty because you have been doing physical exercise:
I can't walk any further - I'm puffed!

v., puffed, puff·ing, puffs.
v.intr.
  1. To blow in puffs.
  2. To come forth in puffs: steam puffing from an engine.
  3. To breathe forcefully and rapidly: huffed and puffed up the stairs.
  4. To emit puffs.
  5. To take puffs on smoking material: puffing on a cigar.
  6. To swell or seem to swell, as with pride or air. Often used with up: He puffed up and glared at the importuning questioner.
v.tr.
  1. To emit or give forth in puffs.
  2. To impel with puffs.
  3. To smoke (a cigar, for example).
  4. To inflate or distend.
  5. To fill with pride or conceit.
  6. To publicize with often exaggerated praise: publishers who puff their new books.
overblown,
(adjective) Puffed up with vanity.
Synonyms:pompous, grandiloquent, pontifical, portentous
Usage:The book contains a heavy dose of overblown lyrical description.

cream puff

http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=cream+puff&btnG=Search+Images&gbv=2
The noun has one meaning:
Meaning #1: puff filled with cream or custard
Synonym: chou
The noun has 2 meanings:
Meaning #1: any of various types of cabbage
Synonym: cabbage
Meaning #2: puff filled with cream or custard
Synonym: cream puff

chou m 1. (légume) cabbage; ~ de Bruxelles Brussels sprout 2. GASTR ~ à la crème cream puff 3. faire ~ blanc to draw a blank; rentrer dans le ~ à qn to beat sb up

vi. (不及物動詞 intransitive verb)
  1. 一陣陣地吹(或噴)
  2. 四周都在放煙火你開心嗎?
  3. 噴著煙移動[Q][(+away/out)]
  4. 火車噴著煙駛進了站。
  5. 喘氣;喘著氣走
  6. 他們爬山後正喘著氣。
  7. 一口口抽煙(或噴煙)[Q][(+away/at/on)]
  8. 派克緊張不安地一口接一口抽著煙卷。
  9. 膨脹;腫脹[(+up/out)]
  10. 他那疼痛發炎的大拇指腫起來了。
  11. 趾高氣揚,盛氣凌人[(+up/out)]
vt. (及物動詞 transitive verb)
  1. 一陣陣地吹(或噴)(空氣,塵土等)
  2. 工廠的煙囪吐出濃煙。
  3. 噴著煙行(路)
  4. 使氣急[H][(+out)]
  5. 吹熄[(+out)]
  6. 她吹滅了煤油燈。
  7. 喘著氣說
  8. 那老人好容易喘著氣說出幾句話。
  9. 使充氣,使膨脹[(+out/up)]
  10. 這男孩鼓起他的雙頰。
  11. 使驕傲自滿;使趾高氣揚[(+up)]
  12. 吹捧(書等);為...作廣告
  13. 那個守財奴被說成是個慈善家。
  14. 使鬆軟
  15. (用粉撲)施(粉)
n. (名詞 noun)
  1. (一)吹,(一)噴[C]
  2. 他一口氣吹滅了三根蠟燭。
  3. 一陣,一股[C][(+of)]
  4. 一股股蒸汽和煙霧從那火車頭裡冒出來。
  5. (抽)一口煙[C]
  6. 經理抽了一口煙。
  7. 呼吸,氣[U]
  8. 膨脹;腫脹[C]
  9. (衣服上的)墊肩[C]
  10. 粉撲[C]
  11. (奶油)鬆餅;泡芙[C]
  12. 吹捧性的短文(或廣告等);吹捧[C][U]
  13. 那篇評價文章盡是吹捧而已。

シュークリーム 【(フランス) chou la crme】


小麦粉を卵で練り,天火で焼いて内側を空洞にした皮の中に,クリームを詰めた洋菓子。英語ではクリーム-パフcream puff)。


2014年12月29日 星期一

ocassioned, rise to the occasion, take (the) occasion, hard drug




The tabloids, blogs and social networks have been all a-Twitter with speculation about Brittany Murphy, the 32-year-old actress who died Sunday morning in her West Hollywood home. Were prescription drugs the culprit or hard drugs? (No illegal medication was found in her home, but, police said, large amounts of prescription drugs were in her body.) Bulimia? Depression?



Hard and soft drugs are controversial and mostly colloquial terms for – respectively – especially damaging psychoactive drugs,[2] and drugs that are believed to be non-addictive (or minimally addictive) and less damaging than hard drugs.[3] The term "soft drug" is considered controversial by its critics because it implies that the drug causes no or insignificant harm.[3]
《中英對照讀新聞》FEMA suggests Christmas gifts for the disaster age 美國聯邦急難管理署推薦因應災變時期的耶誕禮物
◎魏國金
Imagine tearing open that large present under the Christmas tree with your name on it and finding inside... a fire extinguisher. Or a foldable ladder. Or a smoke alarm in that smaller box.
設想拆開聖誕樹下有你名字的大禮物,結果發現裡面是…一個滅火器。或摺疊式梯子。或在小盒內是煙霧警報器。
Those, plus a home disaster kit including food, water and prescription medications for 72 hours, or a first aid certification course are just some of the gifts that the US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is suggesting Americans give their loved ones this holiday season.
那些,加上裝有維持72小時所需的食物、水與處方藥品的家庭急難包,或一期的急救證書課程,正是聯邦急難管理署(FEMA) 建議美國人民在此耶誕假期給予所愛的一些禮物。
"Giving a gift of a fire extinguisher might not be the first thing that springs to mind, but for the guy who has everything, it might be perfect," FEMA Administrator Craig Fugate said.
FEMA署長傅格特說︰「送一個滅火器禮物或許不是心裡閃現的第一個想法,但對於什麼都有的傢伙,它可能很理想。」
FEMA also advised that, in addition to reading "The Night Before Christmas" to the kids, you take the occasion of having the whole family together to "develop a family disaster plan."
FEMA也建議,除了給孩子唸「平安夜」的故事外,你可趁此全家團圓的機會,「擬定家庭災難應變計畫」。
"What we’re saying is that the holidays are the only time families really get together. So it’s the ideal time to talk about a family plan in the event of a disaster," Fugate said.
「我們說的是這個假期是家人真正團聚的唯一時刻。所以是討論家庭災難應變計畫的理想時刻,」傅格特指出。


新聞辭典
disaster kit︰急難包。kit即是工具包、用品箱。比如,a first-aid kit(急救箱)。
spring︰在此有突然閃現之意。例句︰A rude remark sprang to my lips, but I managed not to say it.(一句無禮粗話突然來到我嘴邊,可是我總算沒說出來。)



Definition of occasion


noun

  • 1a particular time or instance of an event:on one occasion I stayed up until two in the morning
  • a special or noteworthy event, ceremony, or celebration:she was presented with a gold watch to mark the occasion
  • a suitable or opportune time for doing something:elections are an occasion for registering protest votes
  • 2 formal reason; cause: [with infinitive]:it’s the first time that I’ve had occasion to complain

verb

[with object] formal
  • cause (something):something vital must have occasioned this visit [with two objects]:his death occasioned her much grief


Phrases


on occasion (or chiefly Britishoccasions)

occasionally; from time to time:on occasion, the state was asked to intervene

rise to the occasion

perform very well in response to a special situation or event.
 when it comes to the finals, they can rise to the occasion


  1. (euphemistic) To achieve erection for sexual intercourse [quotations ▼]

take occasion

archaic make use of an opportunity to do something.

Origin:

late Middle English: from Latin occasio(n-) 'juncture, reason', from occidere 'go down, set', from ob- 'toward' + cadere 'to fall'

take(seize)occasion︰趁機。例句︰I take occasion to tell him my work.(我趁機對他談談我的工作。)

take (the) occasion
to use the opportunity (to do something)



occasion

音節oc・ca・sion 発音記号/əkéɪʒən/音声を聞く
【名詞】
1
【可算名詞】
用例
on this happy [sad] occasion このめでたい[悲しい]に.
用例
in honor of the occasion その行事祝意を表するため.
2
[単数形で]
a
〔…のための機会好機 〔for〕.
用例
b
〔+to do〕〈…する〉機会好機.
用例
3
【不可算名詞】
a
用例
b
〔…する〕理由 〔for〕.
用例
c
〔+to do〕〈…すべき根拠理由.
用例
d
〔+for+()名詞+to do〕〔が〕〈…すべき根拠理由.
用例

名詞としての「occasion」のイディオムやフレーズ
(hàve) a sénse of occásionif the occásion aríses
on occásionon the occásion of…
ríse to the occásiontàke occásion
【動詞】 【他動詞】
1
〈…を〉生じさせる,〈…の〉誘因となる.
用例
用例
b
〔+目的語+to do〕〈物事が〉〈に〉〈…〉させる.
用例
ラテン語落ちること,降りかかること」の; 【形容詞】 occasional





譚教授對印度中國研究的看法
譚 教授提到三人,一為現代美國研究中國歷史的泰斗費正清John King Fairbank,他形成一種可謂「哈佛學派」,對西方學術界、政界等對中國的看法影響很深;二為歷史學家李劍農的著作《中國近百年政治史》,裡頭分析鴉 片戰爭,是有關自由貿易但中國反對自由貿易,且中國並未平等視英國為貿易對象;三為張馨保寫的《林則徐與鴉片戰爭》,三人均認為鴉片戰爭是文化衝突所導 致。張馨保曾提及「Opium is the occasion not the cause」。譚教授曾對這類言論有所駁斥,認為如此一來鴉片戰爭可以用X戰爭替代。他批評張馨保所說的如果當時的「occasion不是鴉片而是糖蜜或 大米,中英衝突仍然不可避免」。那豈不是說,這「X戰爭」很有可能是「糖蜜戰爭」或「大米戰爭」。從任何邏輯理性來看「鴉片戰爭」與「糖蜜戰爭」或「大米 戰爭」是風馬牛不相及的。譚教授認為印度和中國要搭起一個橋樑的話,需要有對中國文化的了解作為根柢,不論是傳統文化深厚的湖南、印度或是譚教授的父親, 均因對中國文化有所了解,才容易搭起中印交流的橋樑。中印就是缺乏這樣的橋樑,中國學者一方面不在印度,一方面沒有empathy,而使得橋樑形成不易。 Empathy 的想法是譚教授在印度的經歷中產生的,比如教中文是來自於中國父親的教導,但教中文如果用美國的教學方法,就不能正確理解中文。譚教授認為,現在印度、中 國的研究大多受到西方的研究方法所影響,其實並不正確。

modality, mode, model, modal, plaster, idea, replica,toy model

“I write a poem simply to create a mode of a priesthood in a church forever, so that a poem for me is simply the first sound realized in the modality of being.” —Charles Olson, born on this day in 1910. Read his Art of Poetry interview: bit.ly/1FCVV9S





Male nude posters plaster Vienna, draw complaints 維也納貼滿裸男海報引來抱怨

◎俞智敏
Naked men of all sizes and shapes are appearing on Vienna kiosks as a prestigious museum kicks off an exhibit of male nudity. But outside the exhibition, organizers are being forced into cover-up mode after a storm of complaints that the ad posters are offensive.
形形色色的裸男目前正出現在維也納各個書報攤上,因為一所知名美術館正在舉行一項裸男藝術展。但在展場外,由於大批民眾投訴展覽海報令人反感,主辦單位正被迫採取掩蔽行動。

按下看大圖
漫畫來源: Ted Goff




Iran To Send White House Toy Model of Captured CIA Drone
U.S. officials, who have asked for the return of the unmanned craft, will instead get a $4 replica.


idea
n.
  1. Something, such as a thought or conception, that potentially or actually exists in the mind as a product of mental activity.
  2. An opinion, conviction, or principle: has some strange political ideas.
  3. A plan, scheme, or method.
  4. The gist of a specific situation; significance: The idea is to finish the project under budget.
  5. A notion; a fancy.
  6. Music. A theme or motif.
  7. Philosophy.
    1. In the philosophy of Plato, an archetype of which a corresponding being in phenomenal reality is an imperfect replica.
    2. In the philosophy of Kant, a concept of reason that is transcendent but nonempirical.
    3. In the philosophy of Hegel, absolute truth; the complete and ultimate product of reason.
  8. Obsolete. A mental image of something remembered.
[Middle English, from Latin, from Greek.]
idealess i·de'a·less adj.
SYNONYMS idea, thought, notion, concept, conception. These nouns refer to what is formed or represented in the mind as the product of mental activity. Idea has the widest range: "Human history is in essence a history of ideas" (H.G. Wells). Thought is distinctively intellectual and stresses contemplation and reasoning: "Language is the dress of thought" (Samuel Johnson). Notion often refers to a vague, general, or even fanciful idea: "She certainly has some notion of drawing" (Rudyard Kipling). Concept and conception are applied to mental formulations on a broad scale: You seem to have absolutely no concept of time. "Every succeeding scientific discovery makes greater nonsense of old-time conceptions of sovereignty" (Anthony Eden).

replica[rep・li・ca]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[réplikə]

[名]
1 レプリカ:原作者自身による自作の写し. ⇒REPRODUCTION 2
2 (一般に)模造品, 複製品, 写し;生き写し
a miniature replica of the Washington Monument
ワシントン記念塔の小さな模造品.

 plaster
 plăs'tər) pronunciation
n.
  1. A mixture of lime or gypsum, sand, and water, sometimes with fiber added, that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls and ceilings.
  2. Plaster of Paris.
  3. A pastelike mixture applied to a part of the body for healing or cosmetic purposes. Also called sticking plaster.
  4. Chiefly British. An adhesive bandage.

v., -tered, -ter·ing, -ters. v.tr.
  1. To cover, coat, or repair with plaster.
  2. To cover or hide with or as if with a coat of plaster: plastered over our differences.
  3. To apply a plaster to: plaster an aching muscle.
    1. To cover conspicuously, as with things pasted on; overspread: plaster the walls with advertising.
    2. To affix conspicuously, usually with a paste: plaster notices on all the doors.
  4. To make smooth by applying a sticky substance: plaster one's hair with pomade.
  5. To make adhere to another surface: "His hair was plastered to his forehead" (William Golding).
  6. Informal.
    1. To inflict heavy damage or injury on.
    2. To defeat decisively.
v.intr.
To apply plaster.

[Middle English, from Old English, medical dressing, and from Old French plastre, cementing material, both from Latin emplastrum, medical dressing, from Greek emplastron, from emplassein, to plaster on : en-, in, on; see en-2 + plassein, to mold.]
plasterer plas'ter·er n.
plastery plas'ter·y adj.


mode
n.
    1. A manner, way, or method of doing or acting: modern modes of travel. See synonyms at method.
    2. A particular form, variety, or manner: a mode of expression.
    3. A given condition of functioning; a status: The spacecraft was in its recovery mode.
  1. The current or customary fashion or style. See synonyms at fashion.
  2. Music.
    1. Any of certain fixed arrangements of the diatonic tones of an octave, as the major and minor scales of Western music.
    2. A patterned arrangement, as the one characteristic of the music of classical Greece or the medieval Christian Church.
  3. Philosophy. The particular appearance, form, or manner in which an underlying substance, or a permanent aspect or attribute of it, is manifested.
  4. Logic.
    1. See modality (sense 3).
    2. The arrangement or order of the propositions in a syllogism according to both quality and quantity.
  5. Statistics. The value or item occurring most frequently in a series of observations or statistical data.
  6. Mathematics. The number or range of numbers in a set that occurs the most frequently.
  7. Geology. The mineral composition of a sample of igneous rock.
  8. Physics. Any of numerous patterns of wave motion or vibration.
  9. Grammar. Mood.
[Middle English, tune, from Latin modus, manner, tune. Sense 2, French, from Old French, fashion, manner, from Latin modus.]



[名]
1 ((形式))やり方, (…の)ふるまい方, 様式, 方式, 流儀((of ...))
a modeof life [living]
生活様式
modes of thought
思考様式.
2 (存在・行動の)表れ方, ありよう, 形態;(機械などの稼働中の)ある特定の状態
a machine in automatic mode
自動作動状態にある機械
in manual mode
手動モードで
Heat is a mode of motion.
熱は運動の一形態である.
3 (生活様式・服装などの)慣習, 慣行
the contemporary mode
現代の慣行.
4 はやり, 流行, モード, ファッション. ⇒FASHION[類語]
new modes from Paris
パリ生まれのニューモード
in [out of] mode
流行して[遅れで]
follow the mode
流行を追う
be the latest mode
((形式))最新の流行である.
5 《哲学》様態, 様状;《論理学》様相.
6 《音楽》旋法, 音階, 調:ある音楽の中の中心音と, その周りに配置したいくつかの音で形成された音組織
church mode
教会施法(グレゴリオ聖歌など)
the major [the minor] mode
長[短]音階.
7 ((米))《文法》法(mood).
8 《統計学》最頻数, モード.
9 《コンピュータ》モード.
be in ... mode
((略式))…の心理状態にある
I'm in holiday mode now.
今はのんびりした気分だ.
[ラテン語modus(方法, 尺度). △MODEL, MODERATE


****
model
n.
  1. A small object, usually built to scale, that represents in detail another, often larger object.
    1. A preliminary work or construction that serves as a plan from which a final product is to be made: a clay model ready for casting.
    2. Such a work or construction used in testing or perfecting a final product: a test model of a solar-powered vehicle.
  2. A schematic description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its characteristics: a model of generative grammar; a model of an atom; an economic model.
  3. A style or design of an item: My car is last year's model.
  4. One serving as an example to be imitated or compared: a model of decorum. See synonyms at ideal.
  5. One that serves as the subject for an artist, especially a person employed to pose for a painter, sculptor, or photographer.
  6. A person employed to display merchandise, such as clothing or cosmetics.
  7. Zoology. An animal whose appearance is copied by a mimic.

v., -eled, also -elled, -el·ing, -el·ling, -els, -els.v.tr.

  1. To make or construct a model of.
  2. To plan, construct, or fashion according to a model.
  3. To make conform to a chosen standard: He modeled his manners on his father's.
    1. To make by shaping a plastic substance: modeled a bust from clay.
    2. To form (clay, for example) into a shape.
  4. To display by wearing or posing.
  5. In painting, drawing, and photography, to give a three-dimensional appearance to, as by shading or highlighting.
v.intr.
  1. To make a model.
  2. To serve or work as a model.
adj.
  1. Being, serving as, or used as a model.
  2. Worthy of imitation: a model child.
[French modèle, from Italian modello, diminutive of modo, form, from Latin modus, measure, standard.]
modeler mod'el·er n.

[名]
1 手本, 模範, 鑑(かがみ), 規範;(比較の)基準となるべきもの
a model of honesty[chivalry]
正直の模範[武士の鑑]
after[on] the model of ...
…を手本にして
serve as a model
手本になる
make a model of ...
…を模範にする.
2 (…の)模型, 原型, ひな型, 見本(small copy)((for, of ...))
a model for a statue
彫刻の原型
a working model of a car
自動車の実動模型
a model in wax[a wax model]
ろうで作った模型.
3 (芸術作品の)モデル, 題材;ファッションモデル.
4 ((婉曲))娼婦.
5 (自動車・機械などの)型, 型式
the latest model
最新型
a 1981 model car
1981年型の自動車
My typewriter is an old model.
ぼくのタイプライターは旧式だ.
6 《論理学・数学》モデル.
7 《動物》(擬態における)模型, 被模倣者.
8 ((英略式))生き写し, そっくりのもの
He's a [the] perfect model of his uncle.
おじさんそっくりだ.
9 ((英))オリジナルデザイン.
━━[形]((限定))
1 模型の;(製品などの)型[様式]を示す, モデルとなるような
a model apartment
アパートのモデルルーム.
2 模範的な, 手本となる
a model student
模範学生
a model prison
理想的な刑務所.
━━[動](〜ed, 〜・ing;((英))〜led, 〜・ling)(他)
1III[名][副])]…を(…をモデルに)作る((on, upon, after ...))
The novel is modeled on a Greek myth.
その小説はギリシャ神話が基になっている
This school modeled itself upon Eton.
この学校はイートン校を手本にして作られた.
2 …を形作る, こしらえる
model a garden
庭園をこしらえる.
3 …の模型[ひな型;見本]を作る;[make A into B/make B out of A]A(材料)でB(模型)を作る
model a bust in plaster
石こうで胸像の原型を作る.
4 〈モデルが〉〈衣服などを〉着て見せる.
━━(自)
1 模型[ひな型]を(…で)作る, (彫刻などの)原型を作る((in ...))
2 〈絵などが〉立体感を帯びる, 鮮やかに浮き立つ.
3 モデルをする
model for an artist
画家のモデルをする.
[イタリア語modello (modo尺度+-ello指小辞=小さな尺度). △MODULATE, MODE
mod・el・er
[名]

modality
mo¦dal|ity
Pronunciation: /mə(ʊ)ˈdalɪti 
  
/

Definition of modality in English:

NOUN (plural modalities)

1[MASS NOUN] Modal quality:the harmony had a touch of modality
2particular mode in which something exists or isexperienced or expressed.
2.2particular form of sensory perception:the visual and auditory modalities

Origin

early 17th century: from medieval Latin modalitas, frommodalis (see modal).

modal
Pronunciation: /ˈməʊd(ə)l 
  
/

Definition of modal in English:

ADJECTIVE

1Relating to mode or form as opposed to substance.
2Grammar Of or denoting the mood of a verb.
2.1Relating to a modal verb.
3Statistics Relating to a value that occurs most frequently in a given set of data.
4Music Of or denoting music using melodies orharmonies based on modes other than the ordinarymajor and minor scales.
5Logic (Of a proposition) in which the predicate is affirmed of the subject with some qualification, or which involves the affirmation of possibility,impossibilitynecessity, or contingency.

NOUN

GrammarBack to top  

Origin

mid 16th century (in sense 5 of the adjective): frommedieval Latin modalis, from Latin modus (see mode).