2012年11月29日 星期四

size up, facet, let up, drum up, burn up, hard up, lenient


 Bad-Loan Leniency Sparks Concern in U.K.
British regulators are increasingly concerned that U.K. banks are being too lenient with struggling borrowers in an effort to mask souring loans on their balance sheets.

The fire has burned up more than 233,000 acres of national forest, and wind is dispersing the smoke.

Congress has been too lenient on Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

Editorial

No Time to Let Up on the Fight

AIDS funding slows just as the need and opportunities expand.



The Strauss-Kahn Case: Sizing Up a Legal Clash's Many Facets

By JOHN ELIGON and JOSEPH GOLDSTEIN
With no eyewitness or other direct evidence of a forcible attack, the case between Dominique Strauss-Kahn and prosecutors is shaping up to be a battle of she-said, he-said.
Rumor: Apple already drumming up parts for iPad 3
CNET
Citing industry sources, DigiTimes said that Apple has begun certifying components for the next-generation iPad, a process that's triggered quick responses from many Taiwan-based hardware manufacturers. The sources said that Radiant Opto-Electronics ...


hard up
In need, poor, as in Unemployment is rising and many families are hard up, or With widespread emigration, Russia is finding itself hard up for scientists and other professional people. [Colloquial; early 1800s]

drum up
1. Bring about by persistent effort, as in I'm trying to drum up more customers, or We have to drum up support for this amendment. This expression alludes to making repeated drumbeats. [Mid-1800s]
2. Devise, invent, obtain, as in He hoped to drum up an alibi. [Mid-1800s]



size up
Make an estimate, opinion, or judgment of, as in She sized up her opponent and decided to withdraw from the election. This usage transfers measuring the size of something to broader meaning. [Late 1800s] 

let up

l

1. See let down, def. 2.

2. Cease, stop entirely, as in The rain has let up so we can go out. [Late 1700s]

3. let up on. Be or become more lenient with, take the pressure off, as in Why don't you let up on the child? [Late 1800s]





lenient

 
音節
le • ni • ent
発音
líːniənt
レベル
社会人必須
[形]寛大な;(人に)哀れみ[情け]深い((to, toward, on, with ...));(事を)大目に見る((about ...)).
[ラテン語lēniēns(lēnisやわらかい+-ēns現在分詞語尾=やわらかくする). △LENIS
le・ni・ent・ly
[副]


2012年11月27日 星期二

bearish, pwssimistic, cutter, brushcutter

Fire at Taiwan's Formosa to have bearish impact on naphtha: traders
Platts3 naphtha-fed steam crackers at Mailiao remained uncertain, demand from the Taiwan refiner -- one of the biggest naphtha buyers in the region -- would remain capped or soften further in the wake of the fire, dealing a further blow to an unsteady ...


Coast guard officials from a dozen Asian and African nations, at right, joined a training cruise around Tokyo Bay aboard a Japanese Coast Guard cutter.
Ko Sasaki for The New York Times
Cautiously, Japan Raises Military Profile
TOKYO — Japan’s resolve to become more of a regional player comes as China stakes its own claims in Asia. Above, a Japanese Coast Guard cutter.
cutter
[名]
1 (仕立屋の)裁断師;(映画・テレビの)フイルム[ビデオテープ]編集者;裁断器(の刃);《解剖学》切歯
a meat cutter
肉切り器.
2 《海事》カッター.
(1) 1本マストの帆船の一種.
(2) 軍艦付属の小艇.
3 税関監視船.
4 ((主に米))小型馬そり.
5 切り違いれんが.

bearish

(bâr'ĭsh) pronunciation
adj.
  1. Clumsy, boorish, and surly.
    1. Causing, expecting, or characterized by falling stock-market prices.
    2. Pessimistic: "Whether or not the [Coast Guard] cutter's presence made bearish the prospects of illicit trade in the outlying islands, there was a prompt mass migration of their inhabitants to the mainland" (Springfield MA Sunday Republican).
bearishly bear'ish·ly adv.



Husqvarna Professional Products Recalls RedMax Brushcutter Due to Fire Hazard

WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, in cooperation with the firm named below, today announced a voluntary recall of the following consumer product. Consumers should stop using recalled products immediately unless otherwise instructed. It is illegal to resell or attempt to resell a recalled consumer product.
Name of Product: RedMax brushcutter / trimmer
Units: About 10,500
Manufacturer: Husqvarna Zenoah Co. Ltd. is an affiliate of Husqvarna Professional Products Inc., Charlotte, N.C.
Hazard: Some fuel tanks allow leakage at the fuel cap, posing a fire hazard to consumers.
Incidents/Injuries: No reports of fire, personal injury or property damage.
Description: The recalled brushcutter / trimmer is a RedMax model TR2350S. Recalled brushcutters have shaft serial numbers ranging from 10215377 to 10625892, and engine serial numbers ranging from 10115390 to 10425910. The product is powered by a 2-cycle gasoline engine and cuts grass or weeds through the use of a spinning black trimmer head containing a spool of filament line. Model number and shaft serial number are located on a label on the shaft halfway between the trimmer head and the engine. The engine serial number is located on the bottom of engine between the two screws that secure fuel tank to the engine. See illustration below.
Sold at: Authorized RedMax dealers and distributors throughout the U.S. and Canada for about $260.00.
Manufactured in: Assembled in U.S.
Remedy: Consumers should immediately stop using the product and return it to their local RedMax dealer for repair.
Consumer Contact: For additional information, please contact Husqvarna toll-free between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. ET Monday through Friday at (877) 257-6921 or e-mail recalls@husqvarna.com
Picture of recalled RedMax Brushcutter / Trimmer TR2350S Brushcutter
RedMax Brushcutter / Trimmer TR2350S


come up short, emeritus

IN NASHVILLE AND NOW NEW YORK, PAY-FOR-PERFORMANCE MODEL IS COMING UP SHORT
Daniel H. Pink posted an article on his blog entitled ‘Does giving teachers bonuses improve student performance?’ He references the first comprehensive study of this approach, from Nashville Public Schools, which showed that merit pay had little effect on classroom achievement. Now, a new study is out from Roland Fryer. Fryer examined the effects of pay-for-performance in New York City public schools.
As part of a PBS NewsHour series about Race to the Top, Learning Matters produced a report on the Nashville plan, as well as a podcast with Nashville Schools Superintendent Jesse Register talking about pay-for-performance. Both can be viewed on the Learning Matters website.


come up short
期待はずれに終わる, 物足りない.



e·mer·i·tus (ĭ-mĕr'ĭ-təs) pronunciation
adj.
Retired but retaining an honorary title corresponding to that held immediately before retirement: a professor emeritus.

n., pl., -ti (-tī').
One who is retired but retains an honorary title corresponding to that held immediately before retirement.
[形]名誉退職の, 前職礼遇の
a professor emeritus [=an emeritus professor]
名誉教授.
━━[名](複 -ti 〔-tài, -tì〕)名誉教授;前官待遇者.
[Latin ēmeritus, past participle of ēmerērī, to earn by service : ē-, ex-, from; see ex- + merērī, to deserve, earn.]

2012年11月26日 星期一

brood, broodmare, mare, who’s who of stallions

Although Zenyatta retired with a 19-1 record, her success as a broodmare is anyone’s guess.
Luke Sharrett for The New York Times

Pressure Builds for Zenyatta’s Mr. Right

A who’s who of stallions awaits the retired racehorse after a thrilling career on the racetrack. But how she will fare as a broodmare is anyone’s guess. 


 His second large brood graduate.

brood

 
音節
brood
発音
brúːd
レベル
社会人必須
broodの変化形
broods (複数形) • brooded (過去形) • brooded (過去分詞) • brooding (現在分詞) • broods (三人称単数現在)
broodの慣用句
brood above, brood over, (全2件)
[名]((単数扱い, ((英))複数扱い))
1 ((a 〜))((集合的))(…の)一かえりのひな, 一腹(ひとはら)の子(⇒LITTER);((おどけて))(人間の)一家の多数の子供たち((of ...))
a brood of chickens
一かえりのひよこ.
2 ((a 〜))(…の)種類, 種, 群れ, 種族;((軽蔑))衆, やから, 連中((of ...)).
━━[動](他)
1 〈鳥が〉〈卵を〉抱く;〈ひなを〉温める, 保護する.
2 …を熟考する.
━━(自)(←(他))
1 巣につく.
2 じっと[くよくよ]考える.
brood above [over] ...
…におおいかかる;…の上に(ぼうっと)浮かび上がる;〈雰囲気が〉…を満たす, にみなぎる.
brood over [about, on] ...
…をくよくよ考え込む.
━━[形]繁殖のために飼っている
a brood mare
繁殖用雌馬.
[古英語brōd. △BREED(子をつくる)]
brood・less
[形]


broodmare

(brūd'mâr') pronunciation
n.
A mare used for breeding.

mare

[名]
1 雌馬, 成熟したロバ・ラバなどの雌. ⇒HORSE, DONKEY
Money makes the mare (to) go.
((ことわざ)) 地獄のさたも金次第.
2 母馬.

stallion
[名]種馬.

shuffles off his mortal coil, appropriate, shuffleboard

 On May 22, 1947, the Truman Doctrine was enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.


今天讀到狄更斯 (CD)專家大力批評此書本著所謂 SIGNIFICANT FORM 想法,批評 CD的 艱難時世 Hard Times 等,特地找出它來, 2009。

初讀《歷史學家的三堂小說課》


2006-02-17
【美】彼得·蓋伊著『歷史小說』劉森堯譯,北京大出版社, 2006,定價: 18.00
「狄更斯、福樓拜、湯瑪斯·曼是讀者熟悉現實主義小說但他們真是在"寫實"嗎?在歷史看來,真相遠非如此簡單。美國文化史彼得·蓋伊認為,這幾位 19 世紀偉大作都具有一種共同特性:對他們各自社會憤世嫉俗。狄更斯在作品中所展現與其說是個歷史,倒不如說是個宣傳,在他《荒涼屋》一書中,英國司法以及整體社會改革必要性被嚴重誇大了。在《包法利夫人》中,福樓拜憑藉其令人目眩神移獨特風格,施展了他對當時法國中產階級社會報復。至於湯瑪斯·曼,他在《布登勃洛克一》裡,為讀者勾勒出幾乎就是一幅諷刺漫畫:一個正在式微高傲中產階級文化。」
【談小說書由外文來翻譯就一定比較好嗎?以《歷史小說》為例。】
[ 原書名:SAVAGE REPRISALS : Bleak House, Madame Bovary, Buddenbrooks by Gay, Peter ]
台灣版:彼得‧蓋伊 / 歷史小說》( Savage Reprisals: Bleak House, Ma dame Bovary, Buddenbrooks 2002))劉森堯譯,台北:立緒, 2004
日本版: 小説から歴史へディケンズ、フロベール、トーマス・マン
金子 幸男【訳】,東京:岩波書店 (2004-09-28出版)
-------
台灣版和日本版都未將原書名: SAVAGE REPRISALS翻譯出來,也沒解釋原題目之意思 其實在第一、二、章之內文都舉出各作之「怒」之創作之「報復」意圖。介紹文中談到「細緻之報復」,可是不敢用,所以各取書名之別名。這方面,日本較老實,台灣版花招 ---如果硬要讓 Peter Gay說教,實際五」,因為「序曲」和「結語」都自成一「」。還有未翻譯參考資料來源和索引。
彼得‧蓋伊著作都值得一讀。不過劉森堯先生譯文雖然通順,有問題可能百處以上。(我是在 http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0393325091/002-7097857-0210450?
)讀和用字 search-inside--尤其「序曲」和「結語」問題可能特別多,因為它們牽涉到「歷史 - -……」等問。台北立緒出版社翻譯品質很不穩定,因人而異。
我舉些有問題之例子:篇章名翻譯就有問題。
日本沒問題:
1章 怒れるアナーキスト『荒涼館』におけるチャールズ・ディケンズ
2章 恐怖症に挑む解剖学者 『ボヴァリー夫人』におけるギュスターヴ・フロベール
3章 反抗な名門市民 『ブッデンブロークの人 々 』におけるトーマス・マン
台灣本副標題分別為:
狄更斯《荒涼屋》、福樓拜《包法利夫人》、湯馬斯曼布頓柏魯克世
用「」翻譯「 in」是錯誤,因為原文為Charles Dickens in Bleak House 等等。
雖然改成類似『巴金在巴黎』『狄更斯在《荒涼屋》』有點奇,但是習慣就好,因為大作們作品多,其時間之跨度長,投入每部作品「心」「力」都可能不同 ….
-----
翻譯為免加注結果弄成另外意思
「從柏拉圖時代以至十九世紀初瑞士教育改革者斐 …….時代」其中educators 漏掉,意思差多(p.13
"... the Victorians; it had been no news to the ancient Greeks and to educators in the centuries from Plato to Pestalozzi. A hundred years before Freud made a theory of it, Wordsworth had famously proclaimed that the Child is father of ..."
---
34頁:「這其中最精彩莫過於對於柯魯克突然暴斃描寫,這是一個畏瑣而卑鄙專收破爛小商人,有一天他突然倒斃在他那堆破爛當中,這個特別死亡方式未必能夠贏得讀者一掬同情之淚 ……」( . But none of these can rival the sudden exit of Krook, the coarse, mean- spirited owner of a wretched junkshop, who shuffles off his mortal coil by collapsing into dust. This particular death did not play on the reading public's love of a good cry but on its credulousness. Krook's end, Dickens expected his vast readership to believe, was."
我自己了英文: shuffles off his mortal coil 典出『哈姆雷特』,表示一命嗚呼。
對於將 coarse, mean- spirited owner of a wretched junkshop翻譯成「一個畏瑣而卑鄙專收破爛小商人」不滿意。 Junkshop日文解釋「(安物の)古物商」,不知道是否真為「破爛東西」,其修飾詞 wretched翻譯成什麼? Krook 是否真死在破爛中(這是原文沒)?
對於coarse mean-spirited 翻譯也不解?
「未必能夠贏得讀者一掬同情之淚」?
------
翻譯經常不理會原文句號,將數句聯成一句。
許多名詞完全直譯、不加注,可能讓讀者不知所云。譬如說,第 36heart of hold Newgate novel(「新門小說」)【案:我印象中這是監獄之所在】。
---
以下關於 paradigm shifts之句有數處錯:翻譯成「圖例變動理論曾被相對論者評為不適」( p.207
Even Thomas Kuhn, probably the twentieth century's most influential historian and philosopher of science, whose brave talk of paradigm shifts has been misappropriated by relativists, maintained that the external world is real, neither constructed nor invented.
其他哲術語如什麼「理想主義」(案:通常稱為「唯心觀」? p.205
----
They have nothing in common except their severity with the devotees of Clio. The first holds that novelists and poets reach higher-which is to say deeper-truths, truths that historians, pedestrian, document- ridden fact grubbers that they are, can never even approach.
翻譯:「這兩個方法除了一樣對史詩與歷史女神克萊歐特別熱衷之外,並無共同之處 ……….」【p.206
「史詩」不之來自何處?「特別熱衷」應為「特別熱衷者(們)」( devotees);原文 severities with (嚴厲待之)漏譯…….
----
漏譯: multiplep.210
The delightful stories a historian can tell, in Simon Schama's words, "dissolve the certainty of events into the multiple possibilities of alternative narrations." Such cheerfulness runs counter to the ..."
誤會:不知道為什麼 "Objectivity is not neutrality." 翻譯為「客關性並不等於公正性」( p. 215
The American his- torian Thomas L. Haskell has put it trenchantly: "Objectivity is not neutrality." In fact, in the right hands, a certain way of look- ing ..."
翻譯成:「一般人會發生對於一場戰役錯誤觀念」( p.217
Fabrice erring about the battlefield of Waterloo in Stendhal's La Chartreuse de Parme unfolds a confusing, almost incomprehensible scene of battle, typical of most battles; but it is through Fabrice's consciousness that ..." 




appropriate[ap・pro・pri・ate]
 

  • レベル:大学入試程度
[形] 〔próuprit〕 (…に)適した, ふさわしい, 妥当な((to, for ...))
an appropriate comment
適切な解説
a speech appropriate toforthe occasion
その場にふさわしい演説
The dishes are appropriate for a wedding gift.
そのお皿は結婚式の贈り物にうってつけだ
It is appropriate that he (should) arrive tomorrow.
彼はあす到着するのがよい(▼((米))でもshouldを入れることがある).
━━[動] 〔próuprièit〕 (他)[III[名]([副])]
1 〈物・金を〉(特定の目的に)当てる, 充当する, 使用する((to, for, as ...))
appropriate the extra income to the payment of the debt
臨時収入を借金の返済に当てる
The piece of land was appropriated for a car park.
その土地は駐車場として使われた.
2 〈議会が〉…の支出を(特定の目的のために)認める;〈政府が〉〈予算を〉(特定の目的のために)計上する((for ...))
Congress appropriated money for the program.
議会はその計画のための支出を承認した.
3 …を私物化する;着服する, 横領する;盗用する;〈土地を〉収用する
appropriate another person's umbrella
他人の傘(かさ)を失敬する
He appropriated the trust funds for himself.
彼は信託基金を横領した.
[ラテン語appropriatus(ap-に+proprius自身+-ATE1=自身のものとする). △PROPER
ap・pro・pri・ate・ly
[副]ちょうどよく.
ap・pro・pri・ate・ness
[名]


  shuffleboard
 [名]シャッフルボード(長い棒で円盤を突いて点数表示部分に入れる遊戯);その点数表示板.


 


Top view of a shuffleboard


A shuffleboard game being prepared on the deck of the MV Aurora

2012年11月24日 星期六

comb, resemble, pretzel, tarmac


Fruit juices with suspended chia seeds at Janie Hoffman's home in Bonsall, Calif.
Sandy Huffaker for The New York Times

After Ubiquitous Pets, Second Life for Chia

With Chia Pets, a mix of seeds and water in an animal-shaped figurine could sprout a plant resembling green hair. Now, chia is becoming a nutritional “it” item.



The New Rules of Airport Delays
This summer puts new rules on tarmac-wait times to the test, as airports stock up on water and pretzels, and deploy buses to unload those who want off long-delayed flights.
Spotlight:

What came first, the soft pretzel or the hard one? The soft pretzel came first. Pretzels have been traced back to seventh-century Europe. Legend has it that a monk took some scraps of leftover dough and twisted them to resemble arms crossed in prayer. He baked them and gave them to children as rewards for learning their prayers. The treats were called "pretiola " ("little prayers). Pretzels made their way to the US in the mid-1800s. Julian Sturgis, a baker in Lititz, PA, offered a meal to a drifter, who, in thanks, gave him a recipe for European pretzels. The popularity of the snack led Sturgis to open the first pretzel bakery in the US, the Sturgis Pretzel House, which remains in operation today. In 2003, Pennsylvania governor Ed Rendell declared April 26 National Pretzel Day, honoring the pretzel and its place in Pennsylvania's history and economy. By the way, hard pretzels supposedly came about when a baker left the tray of soft pretzels in the oven too long.
Quote:
"I wake up every morning in a bed that's too small, drive my daughter to a school that's too expensive, and then I go to work at a job for which I get paid too little. But on pretzel day... well, I like pretzel day."Stanley Hudson, The Office (US version)



 combs sites
Google introduced a new service that aims to make its Internet-search results timelier, using a "real-time" search approach that better combs sites such as Twitter and Facebook.




comb

n.
    1. A thin toothed strip, as of plastic, used to smooth, arrange, or fasten the hair.
    2. An implement, such as a card for dressing and cleansing wool or other fiber, that resembles a hair comb in shape or use.
    3. A currycomb.
    1. The fleshy crest or ridge that grows on the crown of the head of domestic fowl and other birds and is most prominent in the male.
    2. Something suggesting a fowl's comb in appearance or position.
  1. A honeycomb.

v., combed, comb·ing, combs. v.tr.
    1. To move a comb through (the hair) so as to arrange or groom: combed her hair with a comb; combed his hair with his fingers.
    2. To move though or pass across with a raking action: The wind combed the wheatfields.
  1. To card (wool or other fiber).
  2. To search thoroughly; look through: combed the dresser drawers for a lost bracelet.
  3. To eliminate with or as with a comb: combed the snarls out of his hair.
v.intr.
  1. To roll and break. Used of waves.
  2. To make a thorough search: combed through the file for the contract.
[Middle English, from Old English.]


pret·zel (prĕt'səl) pronunciationn.
A glazed, brittle biscuit that is usually salted on the outside and baked in the form of a loose knot or a stick.

[German Brezel, Pretzel, from Middle High German brēzel, prēzel, from Old High German brezitella, from Medieval Latin *brāchitellum, diminutive of Latin bracchiātus, branched, from bracchium, arm, from Greek brakhīōn, upper arm.]
WORD HISTORY The German word Brezel or Pretzel, which was borrowed into English (being first recorded in American English in 1856) goes back to the assumed Medieval Latin word *brāchitellum. This would accord with the story that a monk living in France or northern Italy first created the knotted shape of a pretzel, even though this type of biscuit had been enjoyed by the Romans. The monk wanted to symbolize arms folded in prayer, hence the name derived from Latin bracchiātus, "having branches," itself from bracchium, "branch, arm."



resemble


 
音節
re • sem • ble
発音
rizémbl
レベル
大学入試程度
resembleの変化形
resembles (複数形) • resembled (過去形) • resembled (過去分詞) • resembling (現在分詞) • resembles (三人称単数現在)
[動](他)[III[名]([副])]…に似ている, (…の点で)…のようである((in ...)). ▼ふつう進行形・受身不可. ⇒LIKE1[類語]
An avocado resembles a pear in shape but not in taste.
アボカドはナシと形は似るが味は似ていない
Pat and Lynda resemble each other.
パットとリンダは似ている(▼each otherは省略不可)
Mary closely resembles her mother.
メアリーは母親によく似ている(▼ふつう進行形不可だが推移を表す場合は可:Mary is resembling her mother more and more. ますます母親に似てきている).
[中フランス語resembler (re-強意+ラテン語simulāreまねる). △SIMILAR, ASSIMILATE, FACSIMILE, SIMULTANEOUS, SIMULATE


kite, specter, 'ghost ship' sunk off

Kite With the Wind
A Quest to Reclaim the World Speed Record


  Tsunami 'ghost ship' sunk off US
The US Coast Guard uses cannon to sink a crewless Japanese ship that had drifted to Alaska after being washed away by the 2011 tsunami.



From Nikolai Gogol: The Government Specter


Specter
(spĕk'tər) pronunciation
n.
  1. A ghostly apparition; a phantom.
  2. A haunting or disturbing image or prospect: the terrible specter of nuclear war.
[French spectre, from Latin spectrum, appearance, apparition. See spectrum.]



sink[sink]

  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • 発音記号[síŋk]
[動](sank 〔sǽk〕 or((時に))sunk 〔sk〕, sunk or((まれ))sunk・en 〔skn〕, 〜・ing)(自)[I([副])]
1 〈物が〉(水面下に)沈む, 沈没する, (雪・泥などの中へ)落ち込む;〈歯が〉食い込む((in, into ...))
The vessel sank.
船は沈没した
Our feet sank in the deep snow.
足が深い雪の中にめり込んだ
The front teeth of the dog sank into the palm of Sanders' hand.
その犬の前歯がサンダースの手のひらに食い込んだ.
2 徐々に下がる, しだいに低くなる, ゆっくり下降する;下方に傾斜する((to, from ...))
The land sinks toward the sea.
土地は海のほうへ傾斜している
The kite was sinking to the ground.
たこは地上にゆっくり落ちていった.
3 〈建造物・地面などが〉しだいに沈下する, 傾く
The foundations are sinking.
土台が沈下している.
4 〈太陽・月などが〉水平線[地平線]に近づく[没する], 沈む
watch the sun sink below the horizon
地平線に日の沈むのを見る.
5 (衰弱などで)くずれるように倒れる;(…に)座る, もたれる, 横たわる((into ...))
sink to one's knees
ひざまずく
She sank onto a bench in exhaustion.
疲れはててベンチにどさっと座った
He sank back into his seat and closed his eyes.
腰をおろして目を閉じた.
6 (ある状態に)陥る, ふける, 熱中する((in, into ...))
sink into a coma
昏睡(こんすい)状態になる
sink into chaos
混乱に陥る
sink down in despair
絶望に沈む.
7 (身分・評価などが)下がる, 落ちぶれる, (名声などの点で)下がる, 落ちる((in ...));〈人が〉(…するほど)落ちぶれる((to doing));(質が)悪くなる, 悪化[下落]する
sink into abject poverty
落ちぶれて赤貧の状態となる
The samurai class sank in prestige after the Edo era.
江戸時代が終わると武士階級の権威は失墜した.
8 衰弱する, (病人の)容態が悪化する, 元気がなくなる;〈心などが〉沈む;〈勢いなどが〉弱まる((down))
The old man is sinking fast.
老人の容態はどんどん悪化している
His heart [spirits] sank.
がっくり気落ちした.
9 (量・価が)減る;(音量などが)低く[弱く]なる;(…まで)減る, 弱まる((to ...))
The price of steel sank.
鉄鋼の値段は下がった
The applause sank when the music began.
音楽が始まると拍手は鳴りやんだ
The population there sank to 500.
そこの人口は500人にまで減った.
10 (心に)しみ込む, 理解される;〈水などが〉(…に)吸い込まれる((in/into ...))
Their warning sank into my mind.
彼らの警告は胸にしみた.
11 〈ほお・目などが〉落ち込む, くぼむ((in)). ⇒SUNKEN
━━(他)
1III[名]([副])]…を沈める, (穴に)落とす((in, into ...))
sink an enemy's boat
敵の船を沈める.
2 …の水平面の高さを下げる.
3 〈くいなどを〉(…に)打ち込む, 〈歯・つめなどを〉(…に)食い込ませる((into ...));〈導管などを〉埋める, 敷設する
He sank his fist into his opponent's stomach.
相手のみぞおちに一撃を加えた.
4 〈穴・井戸などを〉掘る
sink a well
井戸を掘る.
5 …を悪化させる;…をいっそう低い地位にする.
6 〈人を〉破滅させる;〈計画などを〉だめにする
Speculating on the stock market sank him.
株の投機で彼は身を滅ぼした.
7 〈…の量・価・程度などを〉(…に)減らす;〈音などを〉低く[弱く]する((to ...))
He sank his voice to a murmur.
彼は声をひそめてもごもご言った.
8 …を隠す, 隠して言わない, 不問に付す;…を無視する;…を省く
sink one's antagonisms and work for the common good
小異を捨てて大同につく.
9 〈資本を〉(…に)投資する, 注ぎ込む((in, into ...))
sink all one's money into real estate
全財産を土地に投資する.
10 《スポーツ》〈ボールを〉(ゴールに)入れる;《ビリヤード》玉をポケットに入れる
sink a putt
(グリーンでホールに)パットを沈める
He sinks shots one-handed.
彼は片手でシュートを決める.
11 〈公債などを〉減債する, 償還する.
12 〈船が〉〈海岸などを〉見失う.
13 ((英略式))〈酒を〉素早く飲む.
be sunk
((略式))たいへんなことになる.
sink or swim
生きるも死ぬも[うまくいくもいかないも]自分の力しだいだ;一か八(ばち)
Sink or swim, I will try.
のるかそるかやってみよう.
━━[名]
1 (台所などの)流し;((米))洗面台(((英))wash basin)
a sink unit
台所設備一式.
2 水はけの悪い低地;下水溝;汚水だめ.
3 ((文))(悪の)巣窟(そうくつ), 掃きだめ.
4 吸い込み:システム内においてエネルギーを処置する装置・場所.
5 (大気圏粒子の)自然降下.
6 炭酸ガスを吸収する森林.

2012年11月23日 星期五

trumpet, Leninist dogma, bury,recollection, clarion call

Juran is raising the clarion call for businesses and agencies to refocus on customers and integrity.

Editorial

Words Not Spoken

The Democratic Party's principles are worth trumpeting, but many are going unmentioned at its convention.



Posts on social networking sites indicated the change in tone came from the Communist Party’s central propaganda department, which directs and censors coverage of major news events.
If it was a classic response, born of Leninist dogma that dictates that bad news be buried and the state’s heroism trumpeted, it was still understandable after a week of what were apparently copycat crimes.


day of recollection:退省日;避靜日:暫時放下日常工作,從容檢討精神生活、宗教問題之日。

20091125
"The cataracts blow their trumpets from the steep





" No more shall grief of mine the season wrong;
I hear the Echoes through the mountains throng,
The Winds come to me from the fields of sleep."

William Wordsworth, Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of


Early Childhood.


Op-Ed Columnist

The Unquiet American

By ROGER COHEN
Richard Holbrooke's untimely death is a clarion call to America to set aside smallness in the name of values that can still inspire.

Pioneer is in talks with Mitsubishi Electric, Alpine Electronics and Clarion on a possible tie-up in car navigation and other auto equipment operations, the Nikkei business daily reported on Sunday.




尖音小號或小喇叭:clarion call——感人的號召或演講
trumpet call——緊急呼喚

clarion (KLAR-ee-uhn)

adjective: Loud and clear.
noun: An ancient trumpet used as a signal in war.

Etymology
From Latin clarion- (trumpet), from clarus (clear). Earliest documented use: around 1384.

Usage
"'For survivors, Tullia Zevi was a clarion voice that warned against the dangers of neo-Nazism,' said Elan Steinberg." — Prominent Anti-fascist Dies Aged 91; Belfast Telegraph (Ireland); Jan 23, 2011.





rec·ol·lec·tion (rĕk'ə-lĕk'shən) pronunciation
n.
  1. The act or power of recollecting.
  2. Something recollected.

recollection[rec・ol・lec・tion]

  • 発音記号[rèkəlékʃən]

[名]((形式))
1 [U]回想, 記憶(力)
to the best of one's recollection
記憶する限りでは
be beyondpast] recollection
思い出せない
be outside one's recollection
記憶にない, 忘れている
be withininone's recollection
記憶している
I had a dim recollection of that fuss.
あの騒ぎのことはぼんやりした記憶しかなかった.
2 [U]瞑想(めいそう);平静, 沈着.
3 ((しばしば〜s))思い出, 追憶
recollections of one's school days
学校のころの思い出.


trumpet
n.
    1. Music. A soprano brass wind instrument consisting of a long metal tube looped once and ending in a flared bell, the modern type being equipped with three valves for producing variations in pitch.
    2. Something shaped or sounding like this instrument.
  1. Music. An organ stop that produces a tone like that of the brass wind instrument.
  2. A resounding call, as that of the elephant.

v., -pet·ed, -pet·ing, -pets. v.intr.
  1. Music. To play a trumpet.
  2. To give forth a resounding call.
v.tr.
To sound or proclaim loudly.

[Middle English trumpette, from Old French trompette, diminutive of trompe, horn, from Old High German trumpa.]

2012年11月22日 星期四

take effect, placebo effect, deleterious, ethicist

 

 Israel, Hamas Cease-Fire Takes Effect

A cease-fire agreement between Israel and Hamas took effect, capping a furious round of international diplomacy to end more than a week of fighting.
 
 

 

Chuck Klosterman Will Be NYT's New Ethicist

The pop culture critic has been tapped to take over the Sunday magazine's advice column. 

 

 

But Mr. Slater makes a convincing case that "A Christmas Carol" marked an even more important phase in Dickens's writing, one in which he began to draw self-consciously on his own biography for his fiction. Dickens's Christmas story "actually turns on memory," Mr. Slater writes, "specifically on the deleterious consequences of blanking out one's past, as he himself had perhaps often fantasized about doing." In particular, Dickens might have wished to blank out his childhood. An early idyll was shattered, around the age of 12, when his father was consigned to debtors prison.

Half of Doctors Routinely Prescribe Placebos

By GARDINER HARRIS
Published: October 23, 2008

Half of all American doctors responding to a nationwide survey say they regularly prescribe placebos to patients. The results trouble medical ethicists, who say more research is needed to determine whether doctors must deceive patients in order for placebos to work.

The study involved 679 internists and rheumatologists chosen randomly from a national list of such doctors. In response to three questions included as part of the larger survey, about half reported recommending placebos regularly. Surveys in Denmark, Israel, Britain, Sweden and New Zealand have found similar results.
The most common placebos the American doctors reported using were headache pills and vitamins, but a significant number also reported prescribing antibiotics and sedatives. Although these drugs, contrary to the usual definition of placebos, are not inert, doctors reported using them for their effect on patients’ psyches, not their bodies.
In most cases, doctors who recommended placebos described them to patients as “a medicine not typically used for your condition but might benefit you,” the survey found. Only 5 percent described the treatment to patients as “a placebo.”
The study is being published in BMJ, formerly The British Medical Journal. One of the authors, Franklin G. Miller, was among the medical ethicists who said they were troubled by the results.
“This is the doctor-patient relationship, and our expectations about being truthful about what’s going on and about getting informed consent should give us pause about deception,” said Dr. Miller, director of the research ethics program in the department of bioethics at the National Institutes of Health.
Dr. William Schreiber, an internist in Louisville, Ky., at first said in an interview that he did not believe the survey’s results, because, he said, few doctors he knows routinely prescribe placebos.
But when asked how he treated fibromyalgia or other conditions that many doctors suspect are largely psychosomatic, Dr. Schreiber changed his mind. “The problem is that most of those people are very difficult patients, and it’s a whole lot easier to give them something like a big dose of Aleve,” he said. “Is that a placebo treatment? Depending on how you define it, I guess it is.”
But antibiotics and sedatives are not placebos, he said.
The American Medical Association discourages the use of placebos by doctors when represented as helpful.
“In the clinical setting, the use of a placebo without the patient’s knowledge may undermine trust, compromise the patient-physician relationship and result in medical harm to the patient,” the group’s policy states.
Controlled clinical trials have hinted that placebos may have powerful effects. Some 30 percent to 40 percent of depressed patients who are given placebos get better, a treatment effect that antidepressants barely top. Placebos have also proved effective against hypertension and pain.
But despite much attention given to the power of placebos, basic questions about them remain unanswered: Are they any better than no treatment at all? Must people be deceived into believing that a treatment is active for a placebo to work?
Some studies have hinted at answers, but experts say far more work is needed.
Dr. Howard Brody, director of the Institute for the Medical Humanities at the University of Texas Medical Branch, in Galveston, said the popularity of alternative medical treatments had led many doctors to embrace placebos as a potentially useful tool. But, Dr. Brody said, doctors should resist using placebos, because they reinforce the deleterious notion that “when something is the matter with you, you will not get better unless you swallow pills.”
Earlier this year, a Maryland mother announced that she would start selling dextrose tablets as a children’s placebo called Obecalp, for “placebo” spelled backward.
Dr. Ezekiel J. Emanuel, one of the study’s authors, said doctors should not prescribe antibiotics or sedatives as placebos, given those drugs’ risks. Use of less active placebos is understandable, he said, since risks are low.
“Everyone comes out happy: the doctor is happy, the patient is happy,” said Dr. Emanuel, chairman of the bioethics department at the health institutes. “But ethical challenges remain.”


More Expensive Placebos Bring More Relief
By BENEDICT CAREY
In a recent study, researchers found that a $2.50 placebo works better than one that costs 10 cents.
(紐約時報)安慰劑越貴似乎效果更大



 take effect
to start working The medicine takes effect in less than a half hour. New voter registration laws took effect last year.



placebo Show phonetics
noun [C] plural placebos1 a substance given to someone who is told that it is a particular medicine, either to make them feel as if they are getting better or to compare the effect of the particular medicine when given to others:
She was only given a placebo, but she claimed she got better - that's the placebo effect.

日文
━━ n. 偽薬 ((心理的効果,新薬テストなどに用いる)); 気休めの薬; (一般に)気休め.
placebo effect 偽薬による心理的効果.



This was to become a recurring theme; Mr. Barzun even considered science to have had a deleterious effect on university education. While he maintained that modern science was “one of the most stupendous and unexpected triumphs of the human mind,” he attacked, again and again, any hint of “mechanical scientism,” which he said had baleful consequences.

deleterious

adj.
Having a harmful effect; injurious: the deleterious effects of smoking.

[From Greek dēlētērios, from dēlētēr, destroyer, from dēleisthai, to harm.]
deleteriously del'e·te'ri·ous·ly adv.
deleteriousness del'e·te'ri·ous·ness n.




ethics[eth・ics]

  • 発音記号[éθiks]
[名][U]
1 ((単数扱い))倫理, 道徳原理の体系;((通例単数扱い))倫理学, 道徳学. ⇒MORAL[類語]
2 ((通例複数扱い))(特定の階級・集団・文化などに認められる)行為の規範;個人の倫理, 道徳, 道義
medical ethics
医師道
professionalbusiness] ethics
職業[商業]倫理
Christian ethics [=the Christian ethic
キリスト教倫理.
e・thi・cian, -i・cist〔eθín〕
[名]