2012年5月31日 星期四

qualified, half-assed, incompetent

For Some, Exercise May Increase Heart Risk
By GINA KOLATA 41 minutes ago

Could exercise harm some healthy people? Well-known researchers say the answer may be a qualified yes.


  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • 発音記号[kwɑ'ləfàid | kwɔ'l-]
1 (職務・仕事などを遂行する)資質[能力]のある((for ...));(…するのに)適格の, 適任の, ぴったりの((to do));(法律上・慣習上必要な)条件を満たした, 資格[免許]のある
a qualified medical practitioner
wellpoorly] qualified officers
a highly qualified person for the job
be qualified to vote
2 修正[手直し, 手加減]した;制限[限定]された, 条件つきの
a qualified consent
a qualified acceptance
(手形の)制限引き受け, (契約の)条件つき承諾
in a qualified sense


下課後, 老師跟我說:「我看不清楚你的名字。」








此書將對失聰者的辱稱"incompetent" 前後翻譯不一致
(ĭn-kŏm'pĭ-tənt) pronunciation
  1. Not qualified in legal terms: a defendant who was incompetent to stand trial.
  2. Inadequate for or unsuited to a particular purpose or application.
  3. Devoid of those qualities requisite for effective conduct or action.
An incompetent person.

incompetently in·com'pe·tent·ly adv.

(hăf'ăst', häf'äst')
adj. Vulgar Slang
  1. Not well planned or executed.
  2. Incompetent.
half-assed half'-assed' adv.

set off, bridging loan, bascule

Tower Bridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tower_Bridge - 頁庫存檔 - 翻譯這個網頁
Tower Bridge (built 1886–1894) is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London, England, over the River Thames. It is close to the Tower of London, ...


  • 発音記号[bǽskjuːl]
1 《土木》跳開構造.
2 はね橋.

The Cambridge team looked on as a protester disrupted its race with Oxford on Saturday.
Leon Neal/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
Memo From London

Tradition Upended on the Thames

The annual Oxford-Cambridge boat race is no stranger to protests, but an Australian who swam between the crews on Saturday, above, set off a chain of chaotic events.

Japan govt forms new JAL team, mulls bridging loan
TOKYO, Oct 30 (Reuters) - Japan's government will set up a new team of ministry officials to work on a bailout for troubled Japan Airlines Corp (9205. ...

bridging loan
A bridge loan (usually bridging loan in the United Kingdom, also known as a "caveat loan," and also known in some applications as a swing loan) is a type of short-term loan, typically taken out for a period of 2 weeks to 3 years[1] pending the arrangement of larger or longer-term financing.

2012年5月30日 星期三

dormant, anonymous. baby drop box, scrutiny, incorruptible

State Law May Silence Anonymous Online Speech
By Matt Peckham
The bill would require a web administrator to 'upon request remove any comments posted on his or her web site by an anonymous poster unless such anonymous poster agrees to attach his or her name to the post'

A merger would have to be approved by partners at Hogan and Lovells at meetings in December. The person with knowledge of the deal spoke only under anonymity, saying that discussions were continuing and could still collapse.

Detainee Alleging Torture to Be Sent to Britain, Source Says

A former British resident held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, will be flown home early next week, marking the first transfer of a Guantanamo detainee by the Obama administration, according to a source involved in the process, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he is not authorized to speak on...
(By Peter Finn and Julie Tate, The Washington Post)

Briton Under Scrutiny for Role in Georgia Blame Game
A former British army captain helped Moscow turn the tide of opinion over who started the Russia-Georgia conflict. But his position as a fair observer is now being questioned.

Olympus Auditors Get New Scrutiny
As the Olympus scandal intensifies, the company's auditors are also feeling the heat, as regulators and lawyers examine why they never exposed a 13-year coverup of more than $1.5 billion in investment losses.

General Motors
is said to be considering whether or not to sell or close down more automotive brands. The Wall Street Journal, citing anonymous sources, said Monday that all of G.M.'s brands except Cadillac and Chevrolet, which it considers core to its business, are under scrutiny.

Go to Article from Reuters via The New York Times»

17 babies are left in anonymous drop box in Japan
The Associated Press - TOKYO (AP) — An anonymous baby "drop box" in southern Japan received 17 babies from around the country in its first year since opening last May, ...

 Reanimating long-dormant scrutiny

Apple Board Faces Scrutiny
For years, Apple's directors operated in the long shadow of Steve Jobs. Board members stretched the standards of corporate governance to maintain Mr. Jobs's privacy and authority. But the board must now decide whether to move back toward the mainstream of how big U.S. companies govern themselves.

EU Opens Formal Probe Against IBM Reanimating long-dormant scrutiny of IBM, EU antitrust authorities said they have opened formal investigations into Big Blue's conduct in the market for powerful mainframe computers.


  • 発音記号[dɔ'ːrmənt]

1 眠っている(ような);不活発な.
2 〈計画が〉実施されていない;〈権利が〉未発動の, 未行使の;〈才能・感情が〉現れていない, 潜んでいる
a dormant account
3 〈火山が〉活動休止中の
a dormant volcano
4 《生物》休眠中の
dormant snakes
5 《紋章》〈獣が〉休眠中の形の. ⇒COUCHANT
lie dormant

scrutinize, UK USUALLY scrutinise
verb [T]
to examine something very carefully in order to discover information:
He scrutinized the men's faces carefully/closely, trying to work out who was lying.

Associated Press WriterSTOCKHOLM, Sweden (AP) -- V.S. Naipaul, a writer of aching humor and grim reality, won the Nobel Prize in literature on Thursday for his "incorruptible scrutiny" of postcolonial society and his critical assessments of Muslim fundamentalism.


  • 発音記号[ìnkərʌ'ptəbl]

1 買収されない[できない], 清廉[潔白]な.
2 ((形式))腐敗[腐食, 溶解]しない, 不朽の.


  • 発音記号[skrúːtəni]

[名](複 -nies)
1 [U][C]精密な調査, 吟味, 詮索(せんさく). ⇒EXAMINATION[類語]
under public scrutiny
stand the light of scrutiny
2 ((英))投票(再)検査. ▼開票結果が接戦のとき行う.
3 [U]監視, 監督.
4 [U][C]じろじろ見ること.
[後ラテン語scrūtinium(scrūtārī注意深く探す+-inium名詞語尾). 原義は「がらくたの中から探す」]

noun [U]
the careful and detailed examination of something in order to obtain information about it:
The Government's record will be subjected to/come under (close) scrutiny in the weeks before the election.

1 made or done by someone whose name is not known or not made public:
The money was donated by an anonymous benefactor.
Police said an anonymous caller warned that a bomb was about to go off.
An attempt to implant an embryo using an egg from an anonymous woman donor was unsuccessful.
He received an anonymous letter threatening to disclose details of his affair if he didn't pay the money.
For reasons of personal safety, the informant wishes to remain anonymous.

2 having no unusual or interesting features:
He has a rather anonymous face.
  • [ənɑ'nəməs | ənɔ'n-]
1 匿名の, 名を伏せた;作者[製作者など]不明の;名前を知られないでいる
a reader who asks to be anonymous
2 個性[特色]のない, 何ということもない, 平凡な.

The donation was made anonymously.

noun [U]when someone's name is not given or known:
The police have reassured witnesses who may be afraid to come forward that they will be guaranteed anonymity.

drop box (technical )
An electric outlet box hung from above, as in a theater stagehouse where it is fed by a cable from the overhead gridiron.

2012年5月29日 星期二

tenure/ eudal tenures, all-new,

The all-new installment of TASCHEN’s bestseller

In a world where products are out as soon as they’re in, where communicating without wires doesn’t come without strings, and even our accessories need accessories, we need simple tools. A book that helps us look inside because we are overloaded outside.

The Nobel committee’s embrace of Mr. Obama was viewed as a rejection of the unpopular tenure, in Europe especially, of his predecessor, George W. Bush.

feudal tenures,意思是授封於陪臣、騎士的土地權力。這種權利,原不過是一種租賃一使用權,所有權是屬於封建主的。梅因(《古代法》)說,它是仿效羅馬時代永田權的一種權利。後來它成了完全的所有權。

ten·ure (tĕn'yər, -yʊr') pronunciation
    1. The act, fact, or condition of holding something in one's possession, as real estate or an office; occupation.
    2. A period during which something is held.
  1. The status of holding one's position on a permanent basis without periodic contract renewals: a teacher granted tenure on a faculty.
[Middle English, from Old French teneure, from tenir, to hold, from Latin tenēre, to hold.]
tenurial ten·u'ri·al (-yʊr'ē-əl) adj.
tenurially ten·u'ri·al·ly adv.

━━ n. (財産の)保有(権,期間,条件); 在職[任]期間[条件]; (大学教師などの)終身的地位.
tenure of life 寿命.
tenure-track, tenure・track ━━ a. 〔米〕 終身的教授職に至る地位にある.
 ━━ a.

tax attribute,bankruptcy code, Chapter 7, Capital Tax

Blacks Face Bias in Bankruptcy, Study Suggests

A new survey found that lawyers were more likely to steer whites to Chapter 7 of the bankruptcy code and blacks to the more expensive Chapter 13.

Kodak Adopts Shareholder Rights Plan The struggling photography company made the move to protect some $2.9 billion in "tax attributes." DEALBOOK »

 UPDATE2: 台湾与党がキャピタルゲイン課税案を発表、意見対立理由に財政部長は辞任
[台北 29日 ロイター] 台湾与党の国民党は28日遅く、独自のキャピタルゲイン課税案を発表した。各界から反発の声が上がっていた行政院(内閣)による案に比べ、株式投資家に有利な内容となっている。 これを受け、台湾株式市場の加権指数.TWIIは上昇した。


A tax on individuals or companies based on the value of their capital. An alternative name for this is a capital levy. Such a tax requires capital to be valued, and would be difficult to collect if it could not be paid out of income received from the capital over some short period. Most countries have thus chosen to tax either income from capital, or realized capital gains, or capital transfers, rather than capital itself.

tax attribute
A type of loss or tax credit that must be reduced as a result of the exclusion of debt cancellation from a taxpayer's gross income. Tax attributes are adjusted when a taxpayer declares bankruptcy.

Tax attributes include net operating losses and carryovers, general business credit carryovers, alternative minimum tax credit carryovers, capital loss and foreign tax credit carryovers.
Investopedia Says:
Taxpayers who are forgiven debts as a result of bankruptcy do not have to include the forgiven debt as income, but certain tax attributes must be reduced by an amount proportionate to the amount of debt that has been forgiven.

For example, if $5,000 in debt was forgiven, then the taxpayer could elect to have the basis of his/her rental property reduced by $5,000 and defer the tax until the property is sold. If the property is sold for a gain, then $5,000 of that gain will be taxed as ordinary income.


  • レベル:大学入試程度
[動] 〔tríbjut〕 (他)[attribute A to B]
1 〈A(物・事)がBに〉起因すると考える, 〈AをBの〉結果[おかげ]であると考える
attribute the warmth to the Gulf Stream
She attributed her failure to her procrastination.
2 〈A(性質・性格など)がB(人・生物など)に〉属すると考える, 〈AをBが〉もつと考える
attribute courage to the lion
3 〈A(作品)をB(人・時代など)の〉作[もの]だと考える
attribute an unsigned painting to Raphael
━━[名] 〔ǽtrbjùt〕
1 特質, 特性, 属性(⇒QUALITY[類語]);《論理学》属性
He had many attributes of a good teacher.
2 《文法》限定詞(▼the blue skyのblueなど).
3 (人・地位などの特徴となる)物, 象徴物
The scepter is the attribute of a ruler.
[ラテン語attributus (at-へ+tribuere割り当てる). △TRIBUTE, CONTRIBUTE

2012年5月28日 星期一

induct, Politburo, roader, counterinsurgency

Members of the class of 2013 at the United States Military Academy practice for coming military maneuvers in the field.
Suzanne DeChillo/The New York Times

At West Point, Split on a Doctrine of War

Faculty at the United States Military Academy, above, are debating the effectiveness of the counterinsurgency strategy used in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Fans of the model fiercely defend it against advocates of its rival promoted by the party chief of Chongqing deep inland, Bo Xilai, who has a flair for publicity. Both Mr Wang and Mr Bo may join the Politburo’s standing committee next year, when seven of nine members, including President Hu Jintao and the prime minister, Wen Jiabao, will step down. Mr Bo trumpets the importance of state-owned enterprises, traditional socialist values and the inspirational power of Mao-era songs—while getting tough on organised crime. Maoist websites lionise Mr Bo; the Chongqing model is held up in shining contrast to that of Guangdong and its “capitalist roaders”.

KABUL, Afghanistan — The deaths of five British soldiers at the hands of an Afghan policeman with whom they were working have unleashed an outcry in Britain and highlighted the vulnerability of Western troops as they carry out a key part of the counterinsurgency strategy to train more members of the Afghan Army and the police.

Microsoft set to unleash Internet Explorer 8
CNET News - San Francisco,CA,USAThe release of IE 8 comes as Microsoft has been losing share to leading rival Firefox and also seeing stepped-up competition from Google and Apple, ...

The antiwar movement in all its commitment, all its sacrifice and determination, could not stop the violence unleashed against Vietnam. And therein lies cause for real regret.
We — the broad “we” — wrote letters, marched, talked to young men at induction centers, surrounded the Pentagon and lay down in front of troop trains. Yet we were inadequate to end the killing of three million Vietnamese and almost 60,000 Americans during a 10-year war.

A lifelong record collector, Mr. Wexler got his start in the music business in the 1940s as a promoter working for music publishers. He remained at Atlantic until 1975, when he stepped down as the label's vice chairman.
After leaving Atlantic, Mr. Wexler continued to produce albums, including Bob Dylan's 1979 album "Slow Train Coming." Mr. Wexler was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987.
The Ben Franklin Society of PIA/GATF Inducts Eight New Members
What They Think - Lexington,KY,USA
He was also responsible for leading the industry in learning, understanding, and using the concept of Total Quality as envisioned by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. ...

noun, taxi-drivers'

A long-distance fare or journey. (1939 —) .


verb [T] FORMAL ━━ vt. 就任させる ((into, as)); 手ほどきする; 入会させる ((to, into)); 兵役につかせる.
to introduce someone formally or with a special ceremony to an organization or group, or to beliefs or ideas:
Li Xiannian was inducted into the Politburo in 1956.
noun [C or U]
Their induction into the church took place in June.
Her induction as councillor took place in the town hall.
an induction course/program/ceremony

unleash Show phonetics
verb [T]
to release suddenly a strong, uncontrollable and usually destructive force:
At worst, nuclear war could be unleashed.
Rachel's arrival on the scene had unleashed passions in him that he could scarcely control.


  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[pɑ'litbjùərou | pɔ'lit-]
[名](複 〜s)(共産党)政治局;((the P-))ソ連共産党中央委員会政治局.



hermeneutics, exegesis, exegete, interpreter

hermeneutics of language

exegesis:解經學;釋經學;解釋聖經。又稱 hemeneutics (sic)。hermeneutics 才對

......carpenters and craftsmen as his exegetes.

(ĕk'sə-jēt') pronunciation also ex·e·ge·tist (ĕk'sə-jĕt'ĭst)
A person skilled in exegesis.

[Greek exēgētēs, from exēgeisthai, to interpret. See exegesis.]
  • 発音記号[éksədʒìːt]
[名]解釈学者, 聖書評釈者.

(used with a sing. or pl. verb)
The theory and methodology of interpretation, especially of scriptural text.
hermeneutist her'me·neu'tist n.
(hur-muh-NOO-tik, -NYOO-)

Interpretive or explanatory.

From Greek hermeneutikos (of interpreting), from hermeneuein (to interpret), from hermeneus (interpreter). After Hermes in Greek mythology, who served as a messenger and herald for other gods, and who himself was the god of eloquence, commerce, invention, cunning, and theft

"Musically, the soundtrack is a trashy genre-fest that provokes a kind of hermeneutic overload. Is it for a horror film, a B-grade sci-fi, a masterpiece of Soviet cinema? Or a kung-fu flick, a western, or a gangster movie?" — Cameron Woodhead; The Session; The Age (Melbourne, Australia); Jun 19, 2006.


n., pl. -ses (-sēz).
Critical explanation or analysis, especially of a text.
[Greek exēgēsis, from exēgeisthai, to interpret : ex-, ex- + hēgeisthai, to lead.]

Friendly Ump: Japanese Ballplayer Wins at Supreme Court

Associated Press
Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito
The legal team of former Japanese professional baseball player Kouichi Taniguchi hit a home run at the U.S. Supreme Court, as a dictionary-wielding Justice Samuel Alito ruled for a 6-3 majority that Mr. Taniguchi’s interpretation of the word “interpreter” was correct.
As we have reported, Mr. Taniguchi lost a suit against a hotel in Saipan over an injury he suffered in 2006 when his leg fell through a wooden deck. A 1978 federal law says the victor in such cases can recoup the cost of “interpreters” from the loser. The question before the Supreme Court was whether the hotel could bill Mr. Taniguchi about $5,000 for its costs translating written documents in connection with the case.
Justice Alito said translating documents doesn’t count as interpretation. His reasoning relied heavily on dictionaries current in 1978, most of which defined an interpreter as one who translates oral communication. The Oxford English Dictionary included a definition of an interpreter as one who translates “books or writings,” but described that definition as obsolete, Justice Alito wrote.
The decision proved again that noted appeals court Judge Richard Posner of Chicago is a power hitter at the Supreme Court. While other appellate courts had found that “interpreter” includes translators of written material, Judge Posner ruled otherwise in 2006, prompting the Supreme Court review to resolve the conflict. Justice Alito cited Judge Posner’s comment that no one would refer to the translator of the Iliad and the Odyssey as an English-language “interpreter” of those works. Chief Justice John Roberts and justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas and Elena Kagan joined the majority.
Three dissenters offered a different interpretation. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, joined by justices Stephen Breyer and Sonia Sotomayor, said it was hard to distinguish between interpretation and translation. She cited the example of a linguist being asked to read aloud a sight translation of a document in court.
Justice Ginsburg said the law was “not so clear as to leave no room for interpretation,” and she said she preferred to reach an outcome that would harmonize with the existing practice in most federal courts of allowing the costs for written translation.
In a court full of legal arcana, this case was simple enough for anyone with a dictionary to play along. Offer your interpretation in the comments.

2012年5月26日 星期六

furbelow, furkids, pet, in a sulk

 Sulking because he did not want his picture taken.

Pakistan and America

In a sulk

(sŭlk) pronunciation
intr.v., sulked, sulk·ing, sulks.
To be sullenly aloof or withdrawn, as in silent resentment or protest.

A mood or display of sullen aloofness or withdrawal: stayed home in a sulk; a case of the sulks.

[Back-formation from SULKY1.]


  • [sʌ'lk]
[動](自)〈特に子供が〉(人に)むっつりする, すねる((with ...));(事に対し)腹をたてる((at ...)).
━━[名]((the 〜s))すねること, 不機嫌, ふくれっつら
have [be in] (a fit of) the sulks [=((英))be in a sulk]

(sŭl') pronunciation
adj., -i·er, -i·est.
  1. Sullenly aloof or withdrawn.
  2. Gloomy; dismal: sulky weather.
[Perhaps alteration of obsolete sulke, sluggish, perhaps ultimately from Old English āsolcen, from past participle of āseolcan, to become sluggish.]
sulkily sulk'i·ly adv.
sulkiness sulk'i·ness n.

sulk·y2 (sŭl') pronunciation
n., pl., -ies.
A light, open two-wheeled vehicle accommodating only the driver and drawn by one horse, used especially in harness racing.

[From SULKY1 (from its having only one seat).]

號事者將pets 寫成 furkids類似 "小毛"


(pĕt) pronunciation
  1. An animal kept for amusement or companionship.
  2. An object of the affections.
  3. A person especially loved or indulged; a favorite: the teacher's pet.
  1. Kept as a pet: a pet cat.
    1. Particularly cherished or indulged: a pet grandchild.
    2. Expressing or showing affection: a pet name.
  2. Being a favorite: a pet topic.

v., pet·ted, pet·ting, pets. v.tr.
To stroke or caress gently; pat. See synonyms at caress.

v.intr. Informal
To make love by fondling and caressing.

[Scottish Gaelic peata, tame animal, pet, from Old Irish.]
petter pet'ter n.

pet2 (pĕt) pronunciation
A fit of bad temper or pique.

intr.v., pet·ted, pet·ting, pets.
To be sulky and peevish.

[Origin unknown.]

(fûr'bə-lō') pronunciation
  1. A ruffle or flounce on a garment.
  2. A piece of showy ornamentation.
tr.v., -lowed, -low·ing, -lows.
To decorate with a ruffle or flounce.

[Probably alteration of Provençal farbello, farbella, fringe, perhaps alteration of Italian faldella, pleat, diminutive of falda, flap, loose end, of Germanic origin.]

psychic, Matthew effect, telepathic, pathetic

《中英對照讀新聞》Pentagon plans for telepathic troops within five years 五角大廈計劃5年內成立心電感應部隊

The U.S. Army is dedicating millions of research dollars into discovering building helmets to allow soldiers to telepathically communicate with one another on the battlefield.

The technology, which seems like something out of a science fiction novel, would use electrodes to pick up code words that soldiers were thinking. Those codewords would then be transmitted back to a computer where the soldier’s position and message--telling, for instance, that it is safe to progress towards a target--which would be transmitted to their peers in the field.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA)was established in 1958 and was dedicated to expanding the Department of Defense’ technology usage, some of which included state-of-the-art, and top secret, research into the mind.

Based largely out of University of California-Irvine, in conjunction with labs in Philadelphia and Maryland, scientists are trying to improve so-called ’synthetic telepathy’ so that it could be used in a battlefield.

So far, 45 percent of the commands that are transmitted from one volunteer to another--like ’call in helicopter’ or ’enemy ahead’--are correct. That statistic is expected to improve.


 (tə-lĕp'ə-thē) pronunciation
Communication through means other than the senses, as by the exercise of an occult power.

telepathic tel'e·path'ic (tĕl'ə-păth'ĭk) adj.
telepathically tel'e·path'i·cal·ly adv.
telepathist te·lep'a·thist n.

pathetic, -ical[pa・thet・ic, -i・cal]

  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • 発音記号[pəθétik, -ikəl]
1 〈光景・物語・手紙などが〉哀れな[をさそう], 痛ましい
a pathetic sight
2 感動的な, 感動させる;感情による[から出た].
3 〈努力・利息などが〉ごくわずかの, まったく不十分な.
[後ラテン語←ギリシャ語pathētikós (páschein苦しむ+-IC=苦しみやすい→同情心をもちやすい)]
state-of-the-art:形容詞,(科技、機電等產品)最先進的、最高級的。用法如state-of-the-art technology(尖端科技)。

in conjunction with:片語,與…共同;連用。例句:He runs a store in conjunction with his relative.(他與親戚共同經營一家商店。)

Google Instant: Quick, Quick, Quick–But Not Psychic

PC World

When Google CEO Eric Schmidt gave a keynote address at the IFA show in Berlin yesterday, he talked about "a
The Matthew effect in Google search?

psy·chic (sī'kĭk)

A person apparently responsive to psychic forces.
See medium (sense 6).

adj. also psy·chi·cal (-kĭ-kəl)
Of, relating to, affecting, or influenced by the human mind or psyche; mental: psychic trauma; psychic energy.

Capable of extraordinary mental processes, such as extrasensory perception and mental telepathy.
Of or relating to such mental processes.

[From Greek psūkhikos, of the soul, from psūkhē, soul.]

psychically psy'chi·cal·ly adv.new definition of Google. ...

2012年5月25日 星期五

crowning, coronation, high treason, Holy See, executed, circlet

Maine’s Senate race
Crowning a King (1)

The final crisis came over the Act of Succession with its inescapable implications. While the supposed nullity of Henry's marriage with Catherine of Aragon was still being decided at Rome, Henry married Anne Boleyn, who was then crowned Queen. More refused to attend her coronation. In 1534 the Act of Succession required the king's subjects to recognize the offspring of the marriage of Henry and Anne as successors to the throne; also that the union with Catherine of Aragon was no true marriage, but that the union with Anne was a true marriage and that the authority of any foreign prince or potentate should be repudiated. To the first part of the oath More was ready to agree, but he could not accept the other propositions, especially as only a little while before Clement VII had at last pronounced the marriage of Henry and Catherine to have been valid. Opposing the Act had been declared high treason, so after a second refusal More and John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, were committed to the Tower. This was on 13 April 1534. More was imprisoned for the remaining fifteen months of his life. Many efforts were made to induce him to conform but in vain; he forfeited all his lands and his family shared his poverty. In 1535 the Act of Supremacy which gave to the king the title ‘only supreme head of the Church in England’ came into force. John Houghton and the other London Carthusian monks were executed for ‘treason’ on 4 May and were watched by More on the way to their death. On 22 June, Fisher, More's friend and adviser, was beheaded on Tower Hill; on 1 July More, weak from illness and imprisonment, was tried in Westminster Hall. His defence was that his indictment was based directly on an Act of Parliament repugnant to the laws of God and the Church; that no temporal prince can presume by any law to take upon himself a spiritual pre‐eminence given by Christ to St. Peter and his successors in the See of Rome; that a particular country could no more make laws against the general law of the Church than the City of London could make a law against Parliament to bind the whole country; that the new title was contrary to the king's coronation oath. Further, although bishops and universities had agreed to this Act, More had not found in seven years' special study of the subject a single ancient writer or doctor that advocated the spiritual supremacy of any secular and temporal prince. In Christendom itself learned bishops and virtuous men still alive, not to mention the saints who were dead, agreed with More; therefore he was not obliged to prefer the council of one realm against the General Council of Christendom or one Parliament (‘God knows what manner of one’) to all the Councils made these thousand years. Nevertheless, he was condemned to death. Characteristically he then expressed the hope that he and his judges may ‘hereafter in heaven all meet merrily together, to our everlasting salvation’. A last affectionate meeting with his daughter Margaret followed on his way back to the Tower; she and other members of his family had taken the oath which he refused. He was executed on Tower Hill on 6 July, his last words being that he died for the faith of the Holy Catholic Church and was ‘the king's good servant, but God's first’.最後的危機,隨著繼承法的無可逃避的意含而來。雖然亨利與阿拉貢的凱瑟琳的婚姻之無效論仍在羅馬裁決時,亨利與安 博林結婚,並將她加冕為王后。摩爾拒絕出席她的加冕禮。1534年,繼承法要求國王的臣民應承認亨利和安的後代為王位的繼承者;而與西班牙阿拉貢的Catherine的婚姻並非真正的,與安的婚姻才是真正的,又任何外國公親或君主的權威應該不予承認。對於上述誓言的第一部分,摩爾準備同意,但他無法接受後者,特別是在克萊門特七世教宗接下來就會宣判亨利和凱瑟琳的婚姻已有效的時候。反對該法案最終會被宣判為犯了叛國罪,所以第二次拒絕宣誓之後,摩爾與羅切斯特主教約翰 費舍爾就被投入倫敦塔關起來。當時是1534413日。摩爾生命的最後15個月一直都被囚禁在那兒。許多作了相當的努力來勸他依順法律來宣誓,可都沒成功;他的所有地產都被沒收,家人淪為窮人。在1535至高無上法案賦予國王“英格蘭教會的唯一最高負責人”的稱號生效了。54日,約翰 霍頓和其他倫敦嘉都西會(Carthusian)會員以“叛國罪”被處決,他們赴義途中特別安排給摩爾看到622日,費舍爾,摩爾的朋友和顧問,被斬首於倫敦塔山坡。 71日,摩爾因監禁而體弱多病,在西敏寺的大廳受審。他的答辯是,他的起訴書乃是直接基於與上帝和教會的法律相抵觸的議會法案,沒有任何世俗王公或法律可以凌駕來自神基督和聖彼得繼任者羅馬給予他的精神力量,正如倫敦金融城不可通過法律來約束國會,所以國會無法可依來稱其臣民有違國王的的加冕誓言之罪。
此外,儘管主教們和諸大學已同意該法案,摩爾專心7年致力於專門研究之後發現自古以來的所有博學之士無人主張任何世俗王公可能超越教會作為精神至上的主體 。在基督教中,博學的主教和道德高尚的人仍比比皆是,更不用談還有諸多聖人可效法之,他們的見解都與摩爾一致所以他對於某地域的議會訂出高於一般教會法(“上帝知道一體的教權“)和千年來的習俗的法律並沒有義務。然而,他還是被判處死刑。他以其特有而慣用方式表示,希望能和法官們可以“此後在天上歡聚,來取得我們永恆的救贖”。在他返回倫敦塔的途中,他與女兒瑪格麗特做最後的熱烈討論,她與其他家庭成員已宣了誓,可摩爾仍拒不宣誓76日他在倫敦塔山坡被斬首示眾。他最後的話是,他為神聖天主教的信仰而死,他始終都是和“國王的僕人,但神為先”。

Richard II of England wearing a circlet.

━━ n. 小円[圏]; 飾り輪 ((腕・頭・首などの)).

The noun circlet has one meaning:
Meaning #1: decorated metal band worn around the head

A small circle, especially a circular ornament.

[Middle English cerclet, from Old French, diminutive of cercle, circle. See circle.]

A circlet is a crown with neither arches nor a cap (internal covering).
Many ancient crowns were circlet in style, notably the original St. Edward's Crown, the coronation crown of English monarchs, which was destroyed by Oliver Cromwell during the Commonwealth of England. In fairy tales, crowns often continue to be represented in circlet form.
In the twentieth century two British consort crowns, the Crown of Queen Mary, and the Crown of Queen Elizabeth, were designed with detachable half-arches connected to crosses pattee so that they could be worn as circlets.
Former Queens Consort whose husbands had died sometimes only wore their consort crowns as circlets after their husbands' death. Alexandra of Denmark (Queen Alexandra, widow of Edward VII of the United Kingdom), Mary of Teck (Queen Mary, widow of King George V of the United Kingdom) and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, widow of King George VI of the United Kingdom) all followed this practice.

The Coronation of Napoleon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Coronation of Napoleon (French: Le Sacre de Napoléon) is a painting completed in 1807 by Jacques-Louis David, the official painter of Napoleon.