2014年9月12日星期五

skimp, shirk, ilk, ranter, swing the lead,


Skimping on sleep wears down your body in so many ways.
Losing out on sleep can affect your memory, a study shows
TIME.COM




Google and ilk can't shirk responsibility for ranters
Sydney Morning Herald
The blogspot.com site which he uses is operated by Google, based in California and registered in Delaware. It requires a Google account and gmail address. One person posted an online comment about this yesterday, saying they had tried to report the ...





swing the lead

  音節
swing the lead
((英古風))
(1) 仮病などを使って職務を怠ける.
(2) ほらを吹く, 大げさに言う.
ilk(ĭlk) pronunciation
n.
Type or kind: can't trust people of that ilk.

pron. Scots
The same. Used following a name to indicate that the one named resides in an area bearing the same name: Duncan of that ilk.

[Middle English ilke, same, from Old English ilca.]
WORD HISTORY When one uses ilk, as in the phrase men of his ilk, one is using a word with an ancient pedigree even though the sense of ilk, "kind or sort," is actually quite recent, having been first recorded at the end of the 18th century. This sense grew out of an older use of ilk in the phrase of that ilk, meaning "of the same place, territorial designation, or name." This phrase was used chiefly in names of landed families, Guthrie of that ilk meaning "Guthrie of Guthrie." "Same" is the fundamental meaning of the word. The ancestors of ilk, Old English ilca and Middle English ilke, were common words, usually appearing with such words as the or that, but the word hardly survived the Middle Ages in those uses.

shirk[shirk]

  • 発音記号[ʃə'ːrk]

[動](他)〈仕事・責任などを〉のがれる, 避ける, 回避する;…をなまける((doing)).
━━(自)仕事をずるける, 責任をのがれる.
━━[名](またshírk・er)仕事[義務]を忌避する人;なまけ者, 横着者.

rant[rant]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[rǽnt]

[動](自)大言壮語する, 大声を張り上げる, わめく;激しくしかる;大声で説教をする
rant and rave
どなりちらす.
━━(他)…を大声で言う((out)).
━━[名]
1 [U]大言壮語, 誇張した話;長広舌.
2 大げさな言葉.
rant・er
[名]わめく人.
rant・ing・ly
[副]

Swing the lead

more like this...
...other phrases about:

Meaning

To shirk one's labour; to malinger.

Origin

I can recall that, as a child, I was attracted to an explanation of the phrase 'swinging the lead' that went like this:
Sailors used to use lines weighted with lead in order to check how deep the water was beneath their ships. The lazier mariners skimped on the task and just swung the lead in the air, calling out a fictitious depth.
Many years on and, as an etymologist, my heart doesn't exactly sing when I receive yet another email starting with "I've always believed that...". It seems time to revisit that explanation of 'swinging the lead' that I took on trust in my formative years and to check the facts.
A good place to start with research into nautical language is Admiral W. H. Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book, 1867. This is a glossary of the terms and expressions used by British sailors, most of which date from when 'Britannia ruled the waves', the 18th and 19th centuries. It is clear that sailors did indeed measure the depth of water by dropping in lines weighted with lead. The weights were called 'sounding leads' and Smyth includes this entry:
Lead, Sounding : An instrument for discovering the depth of water; it is a tapered cylinder of lead, of 7, 14 or 28 lbs. weight, and attached, by means of a strop, to the lead-line, which is marked at certain distances to ascertain the fathoms.
Deep-sea Lead: A lead of a larger size, being from 28 to 56 lbs in weight, and attached to a much longer line.
To Heave the Lead: to throw it into the sea as far ahead as possible, if the ship is underway.
Swinging the leadThe leads were sometimes hollow and filled with tallow wax, so as to bring up particles of whatever was on the sea floor, this being useful information to the ship's helmsman. The ropes were knotted at six-foot (fathom) intervals and sounding was also known as 'fathoming', that is. measuring in fathoms. This may be the source of the term 'fathoming out'.
The depth of water is crucial to sailors and, before the development of mechanical depth-sounders and, in the 20th century, SONAR echo-location, 'heaving the lead' was the only way of determining it.
[Another bane of etymology is the false acronym. SONAR is a genuine example of an early acronym, meaning 'SOund NAvigation and Ranging'.]
The leadsmen's role was important and physically demanding - they were called on to throw weights of up to 56 lbs into the sea and then haul them up at frequent intervals. The notion that they might have avoided the exertion of their task seems easy to believe. Counting against it is the fact that they would have had little opportunity for deception as they were supervised by officers and had to show the material that adhered to the tallow to the ship's navigator.
You may have noticed that, while Admiral Smyth mentions 'heaving the lead', he makes no mention of 'swinging the lead'. Indeed, until the early 20th century, nor did anyone else - the phrase is first recorded during WWI. In 1917, the magazine To-Day published this:1
"It is evident that he had 'swung the lead' (using Army phrase) until he got his discharge."
It's possible that the phrase was coined by soldiers in allusion to a supposed form of malingering by sailors. It may also be that 'swing the lead' was a corruption of 'swing a leg', which was a term previously used in both the British Army and Navy, with the same meaning. What is certain is that 'swinging the lead' wasn't used by sailors themselves in the days of sail.
And I had 'always believed that'.... At least my childish belief, although it appears now to have been overly gullible, did initiate an abiding curiosity about phrase origins.


skimp

Line breaks: skimp
Pronunciation: /skɪmp 
  
/

VERB

[NO OBJECT]
Expend or use less time, money, or material on something than is necessary in an attempt to economize:don’t skimp on insurance when you book your holidays

NOUN

INFORMALBack to top  
A fashionably short or revealing garment:she wore a yellow skimp

Origin

late 18th century: of unknown origin; compare withscamp2 and scrimp.

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