2009年3月3日 星期二

forestation,sustain, sustainability

Hundreds of Gallons of Water in Every Shirt

An interview with Rebecca Henderson

February 11, 2009

A founder of the MIT Sloan School of Management’s Sustainability Lab talks about how businesses and governments have to surmount social issues as well as economic ones if they are serious about sustainability.


“They created sustainable homes that are better for environment and the families who live there,” the ad states. “They chose to walk the less expected path, and their Rockport shoes let them do it in complete comfort and style.”


To Sustain iPhone, Apple Halves Price
Apple halved the price for its entry-level iPhone to $99 and rolled out new version, as it tries to sustain sales.




forest━━ n. 森, 森林(の樹木); 森林地帯; ((形容詞的)) 森の, 森に住む; 林立したもの; 〔英〕 (王室の)御猟場; 【コンピュータ】木構造のデータの集合.
━━ vt. 植林する, 森林にする.

for・est・a・tion
 ━━ n. 植林.

for・est・er ━━ n. 林務官; 樵(きこり); 林業労務者; 森林居住者.
forest ranger 〔米〕 山林巡視員.
for・est・ry ━━ n. 林学; 林業; 山林管理(法); 森林(地).
Forestry Commission 〔英〕 (the ~) 営林局.

Getting close to nature for a supply of pulp

10/11/2007

BY TOKUHIKO SAITO THE ASAHI SHIMBUN

As demand for paper surges in emerging world economies, major Japanese trading companies are looking to the future by investing in forestation projects.

It will guarantee stable supply of pulp and other materials in the years to come.

Companies are planting trees like never before in the face of an almost global crackdown on harvesting timber.

Trading houses also expect that investment in decades-long projects will yield returns as material prices rise.

Marubeni Corp., the nation's largest trader of paper and pulp, tied up with major papermaker Nippon Paper Industries Co. in late 2006 to share financing of a 6-billion-yen purchase of a forestation and wood chip production company group in Brazil.

In 2005, one of the largest forestation companies in Indonesia and a local paper and pulp maker came under Marubeni's control.

Marubeni controls the largest forestation area owned by a Japanese trading company--400,000 hectares. It has the potential to produce about one-third of the nation's import of wood chips.

Marubeni's rivals are also aggressive.

Itochu Corp. is considering expanding its 250,000-hectare site for planting eucalyptus trees in Brazil. The project is jointly financed with Oji Paper Co, the nation's leading papermaker, and others.

Meanwhile, trading firm Sojitz Corp. is preparing to start plantation projects in Latin America or South Africa.

Sojitz currently has forestation sites in Vietnam and Australia, which have a combined space of about 20,000 hectares.

Acacia and eucalyptus trees grow relatively quickly. But it still takes about 10 years before they can be harvested.

Trees planted in the 1990s are now large enough to be felled.

Investment in these projects is yielding returns, thanks to the rise in wood chip prices.

The price in Western Australia state climbed from A$161 (about 15,000 yen) per ton in 2000 to A$189 (about 18,000 yen) in 2007.

Trading firms expect forestation to grow into a sustainable business; for example, by planting the same number of trees as those logged.

Companies such as Marubeni are looking outside Japan because domestic demand for paper products has leveled off due to declining birthrates and the shift to other forms of communication that do not rely on paper.

In contrast, surging imports by emerging economies are tightening the global supply.

It is estimated that the demand for paper in China will grow to 90 million tons in 2010 from the current demand of about 60 million tons, fueled mainly by demand for industrial-use wrapping paper.



sustain (MAINTAIN) PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
verb [T]
1 to cause or allow something to continue for a period of time:
The economy looks set to sustain its growth into next year.
He seems to find it difficult to sustain relationships with women.
US The judge sustained (= accepted) the lawyer's objection.

2 to keep alive:
The soil in this part of the world is not rich enough to sustain a large population.

sustainable PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
adjective
1 able to continue over a period of time:
That sort of extreme diet is not sustainable over a long period.

2 causing little or no damage to the environment and therefore able to continue for a long time:
A large international meeting was held with the aim of promoting sustainable development in all countries.

sustainability PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Phonetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
noun [U]

sustained PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
adjective
1 continuing for a long time:
The president's speech was greeted by sustained applause.

2 determined:
We must make a sustained effort to get this task finished this week.



Growing public awareness of forest conservation in North America has also made it more difficult to expand production in the major supply area.

The Russian government plans to impose heavier taxes on exports of raw wood.

In the domestic market, Fuji Xerox Co. and Ricoh Co., major office equipment makers and large-lot purchasers of office paper, have introduced environmental policies of not using paper made from wood taken from natural forests.

Under such restrictions, paper material supply will be limited to forestation projects in the southern hemisphere, a Mitsui & Co. senior official said. But land with warm weather and rainfall that is suitable for forestation projects is also ideal for farming.

As farming projects become more profitable due to rising crop prices, it makes finding land plots for planting trees more difficult.

Sojitz has supported local forestry businesses in Vietnam by providing loans and offering seedlings for free.

The trading firm aims to secure supply of unprocessed wood by purchasing it on a priority basis, from those whom it assists, instead of by acquiring additional land plots.

Mitsui is considering procurement from forestation funds, which solicit investment in tree-planting projects. Such funds are eligible for tax breaks in Australia.(IHT/Asahi: October 11,2007)

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